AAP Wiley Lab Practical 2

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Cranial Nerves,
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1
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Name I.

List Function.

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Olfactory

Smell

2
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Name II.

List Function.

Optic

Vision

3
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Name III.

List Function.

Oculomotor

Eye Movement

4
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Name IV.

List Function.

Trochlear

Eye Movement

5
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Name V.

List Function.

Trigeminal

Facial Senses

6
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Name VI.

List Function.

Abducens

Looking Away

7
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Name VII.

List Function.

Facial

Facial Expressions

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Name VIII.

List Function.

Vestibulocochlear (Auditory)

Hearing

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Name IX.

List Function.

Glossopharyngeal

Gag Reflex

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Name X.

List Function.

Vagus

Heart Rhythm and Breathing

11
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Name XI.

List Function.

Accessory

Neck Movement- Head Rotation

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Name XII.

List Function.

Hypoglossal

Tongue Movement

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Label 1.

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Radial Nerve

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Label 2.

Median Nerve

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Label 3.

Ulnar Nerve

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Label 4.

Sciatic Nerve

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Label 5.

Femoral Nerve

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Label 1 (plexus).

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Brachial Plexus

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Label 2 (plexus).

Cervical Plexus

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Label 3 (nerve).

Phrenic Nerve

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Label 4 (nerve)

Intercostal Nerve

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Label 1-3.

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1) Z disc

2) H zone

3) Z disc

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Label 4-5.

4) thin (actin) filament

5) thick (myosin) filament

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Label 6-9.

6) I band

7) A band

8) I band

9) M line

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Label 10-12.

10) Z disc

11) M line

12) Z disc

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Describe 1.

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thin filaments only

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Describe 2.

thick filaments only

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Describe 3.

thick filaments linked by accessory proteins

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Describe 4.

thick and thin filaments overlap

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Label 1.

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Lacrimal gland

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Label 2.

Sclera

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Label 3.

Iris

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Label 4.

Cornea

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Label 5.

Lateral rectus muscle

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Label 6.

Medial rectus muscle

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Label 7.

Inferior oblique muscle

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Label 8.

Inferior oblique muscle

38
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List Cervical Nerves.

List Cervical Plexus Nerves.

C1-C8

C1-C5

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List Brachial Plexus Nerves.

C5-T1

40

List Thoracic Nerves.

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T1-T12

41

List Lumbar Nerves.

List Lumbar Plexus Nerves.

L1-L5

L1-L4

42

List Sacral Nerves.

List Sacral Plexus Nerves.

S1-S5

L4-S4

43

List Coccygeal Nerves.

Co1

44

Corpuscle: touch, light pressure

meissners (tactile) corpuscle

45

Area of skin: feel pain, temperature

free nerve ending

46

Corpuscle: deep continuous pressure

bulbous corpuscle

47

Corpuscle: deep pressure

lamellar corpuscle

48

sensory receptors that are sensitive to stimuli in external environment

exteroceptors

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sensory receptors that respond to stimuli arising within the body

interoceptors

50

sensory receptors that respond to internal stimuli but are restricted to skeletal muscles, tendons, joints, ligaments, and connective tissue coverings of bones and muscles.

proprioceptors

51

awareness of the stimulus

sensation

52

interpretation of the meaning of the stimulus

perception

53

Sensory receptors act as ________________, changing environmental stimuli into nerve impulses that are relayed to the CNS

transducers

54

Cells of the retina include the ___________ of the outer pigmented layer and the __________ of the neural layer.

pigmented cells

neurons

55

The inner neural layer is composed of three major populations of neurons:

the photoreceptors, the bipolar cells, and the ganglion cells

56

The ______ are the specialized photoreceptors for dim light. Visual interpretation of their activity is in ____ tones.

rods

gray

57

The _______ are color photoreceptors that permit high levels of visual acuity, but they function only under conditions of high light intensity.

cones

58

The _______________ contains only cones, the ______________ contains mostly cones, and from the edge of the macula to the retina periphery, cone density declines gradually.

fovea centralis

macula lutea

59

Light must pass through the ____________ layer and the ____________ layer to reach and excite the rods and cones.

ganglion cell

bipolar cell

60

Black pigmented body that appears to be a halo encircling the lens.

ciliary body

61

Biconvex structure that is opaque in preserved specimens.

lens

62

Anterior continuation of the ciliary body penetrated by the pupil.

iris

63

More convex anteriormost portion of the sclera; normally transparent but cloudy in preserved specimens.

cornea

64

Appears as a delicate tan membrane that separates easily from the choroid.

retina

65

Appears iridescent in the cow or sheep eye owing to a modification called the tapetum lucidum. This specialized surface reflects the light within the eye and is found in the eyes of animals that live under conditions of dim light. It is not found in humans.

pigmented choroid coat

66

At the ________________, the fibers from the medial side of each eye cross over to the opposite side.

optic chiasma

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Four qualities of cutaneous sensations have traditionally been recognized:

tactile (touch), heat, cold, and pain

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the rate of receptor discharge slows and conscious awareness of the stimulus declines or is lost until some type of stimulus change occurs

adaptation

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sensory experience in which pain is perceived as arising in one area of the body when in fact another, often quite remote area, is receiving the painful stimulus

referred pain (brain freeze)

70
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Secretes lacrimal fluid, which contains mucus, antibodies, and lysozyme.

lacrimal gland

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Allows lacrimal fluid to drain into the nasolacrimal duct.

lacrimal sac

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Helps to maintain the shape of the eyeball and provides an attachment point for the extrinsic eye muscles.

sclera

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Forms a clear window that is the major light bending (refracting) medium of the eye.

cornea

74

The blood vessels nourish the other layers of the eye, and the melanin helps to absorb excess light.

Choroid

75

Contains the ciliary muscle and the ciliary process.

ciliary body

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Alters the shape of the lens with contraction and relaxation.

ciliary muscle

77

Capillaries of the ciliary process form the aqueous humor by filtering plasma.

ciliary process

78

Attaches the lens to the ciliary process.

ciliary zonule

79

Controls the amount of light entering the eye by changing the size of the pupil diameter. The sphincter pupillae contract to constrict the pupil. The dilator pupillae contract to dilate the pupil.

iris

80

Allows light to enter the eye.

pupil

81

Absorbs light and prevents it from scattering in the eye. Pigment cells act as phagocytes for cleaning up cell debris and also store vitamin A needed for photoreceptor renewal.

Pigmented layer of the retina

82

Photoreceptors respond to light and convert the light energy into action potentials that travel to the primary visual cortex of the brain.

Neural layer of the retina

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The lens divides the eye into two segments:

anterior and posterior segment

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the anterior segment, anterior to the lens, which contains a clear watery fluid called the ______________________

aqueous humor

85

the posterior segment behind the lens, filled with a gel-like substance, the _________________________

vitreous humor

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the anterior segment is further divided into two chambers: ____________________, located before and after the iris

anterior and posterior chambers

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The aqueous humor is continually formed by the capillaries of the _________________ of the ciliary body.

ciliary processes

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This helps to maintain the intraocular pressure of the eye and provides nutrients for the avascular lens and cornea.

aqueous humor

89

The aqueous humor is drained into the ____________________.

scleral venous sinus

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The vitreous humor provides the major internal reinforcement of the posterior part of the eyeball, and helps to keep the _______ pressed firmly against the wall of the eyeball

retina

91

In addition to the cornea, the light-bending media of the eye includes 3 other parts:

the lens, the aqueous humor, and the vitreous humor.

92

Anything that interferes with drainage of the aqueous fluid increases intraocular pressure. When intraocular pressure reaches dangerously high levels, the retina and optic nerve are compressed, resulting in pain and possible blindness, a condition called ______________.

glaucoma

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Each ______________ contains fibers from the lateral side of the eye on the same side and from the medial side of the opposite eye.

optic tract

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The image formed on the retina as a result of the refractory activity of the lens is a ____________ (reversed from left to right, inverted, and smaller than the object).

real image

95

The elasticity of the lens decreases dramatically with age, resulting in difficulty in focusing for near or close vision, especially when reading. Called

_______________.

presbyopia

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, or sharpness of vision, is generally tested with a Snellen eye chart.

visual acuity

97

_________________ are designed to test for deficiencies in the cones or color photoreceptor cells.

Ishihara’s color plates

98

Color Blindness: There are three cone types, each containing a different light-absorbing pigment:

red, blue, green

99

Humans, cats, predatory birds, and most primates are endowed with __________.

binocular vision

100

The primary visual cortex fuses the slightly different images, providing _______________.

depth perception

101

The ____________, controlled by the autonomic nervous system, are those of the ciliary body.

intrinsic muscles

102

The _____________ are the rectus and oblique muscles, which are attached to the eyeball exterior.

extrinsic muscles

103

The ear is divided into three major areas:

external, internal and middle

104

The external and middle ear structures serve the needs of the sense of ________.

hearing only