Head & Spine Flashcards


Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by Vanessa_Dominique
546 views
137 Questions
updated 3 years ago by Vanessa_Dominique
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1
card image

Which of the following is (are) well demonstrated in the lumbar spine pictured in Figure 2–8?
Zygapophyseal articulations
Intervertebral foramina
Pedicles

2 and 3 only

2

Which of the following positions will best demonstrate the right zygapophyseal articulations of the lumbar vertebrae?

RPO

3

Which of the following is a functional study used to demonstrate the degree of AP motion present in the cervical spine?

Flexion and extension laterals

4

The right anterior oblique position of the cervical spine requires which of the following combinations of tube angle and direction?

15° to 20° caudad

5

To demonstrate the first two cervical vertebrae in the AP recumbent projection, the patient is positioned so that

a line between the maxillary occlusal plane and the mastoid tip is vertical.

6

To visualize or “open” the right sacroiliac joint, the patient is positioned

25 to 30 degrees LPO

7

Which of the following positions would best demonstrate the left zygapophyseal articulations of the lumbar vertebrae?

LPO

8

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding a PA axial projection of the paranasal sinuses?
The OML is elevated 15 degrees from the horizontal.
The petrous pyramids completely fill the orbits.
The frontal and ethmoidal sinuses are visualized.

1 & 3 ONLY

9

Which of the following is (are) demonstrated in the AP projection of the thoracic spine?

1.
Intervertebral spaces
2.
Zygapophyseal joints
3.
Intervertebral foramina

1 ONLY

10
card image

Which of the positions illustrated below would best demonstrate the cervical pedicles?

A, B, C

1 & 3 ONLY

11

At approximately what level do the carotid arteries bifurcate?

laryngopharynx

12
card image

The radiograph in Figure 6–12 could be improved in which of the following ways?

The chin should be elevated slightly.

13

Which of the following positions would best demonstrate the lumbar intervertebral joints and foramina?

Lateral

14

Which of the following is (are) demonstrated in the lateral projection of the cervical spine?

  1. Intervertebral joints
  2. Zygapophyseal joints
  3. Intervertebral foramina

1 & 2 ONLY

15

A kyphotic curve is formed by which of the following?
Sacral vertebrae
Thoracic vertebrae
Lumbar vertebrae

1 & 2 ONLY

16

The pedicle is represented by what part of the "scotty dog" seen in a correctly positioned oblique lumbar spine?

EYE

17

During myelography, contrast medium is introduced into the

subarachnoid space

18

Which of the following are demonstrated in the oblique position of the cervical spine?

1.
Intervertebral foramina
2.
Zygapophyseal joints
3.
Intervertebral joints

1 ONLY

19

Which of the following positions would demonstrate the right lumbar zygapophyseal articulations closest to the IR?

RPO

20

The laryngeal prominence is formed by the

thyroid cartilage

21

A lateral projection of the larynx is occasionally required to rule out foreign body, polyps, or tumor. The CR should be directed

to the level of the laryngeal prominence

22

Which of the following projections can be used to supplement the traditional “open-mouth” projection when the upper portion of the odontoid process cannot be well demonstrated?

AP or PA through the foramen magnum

23

If a patient's zygomatic arch has been traumatically depressed or the patient has flat cheekbones, the arch may be demonstrated by modifying the SMV projection and rotating the patient's head

15 degrees toward the side being examined

24
card image

What is the anatomic structure indicated by number 1 in the radiograph shown in Figure 6–21?

Superior articular process

25

The AP projection of the coccyx requires that the CR be directed
15 degrees cephalad
2 inches superior to the pubic symphysis
at a level 1 inch medial to the ASIS

2 ONLY

26

Which of the following structures is located at the level of the interspace between the second and third thoracic vertebrae?

Jugular notch

27

The AP projection of the sacrum requires the central ray to be directed

15° cephalad to a point approximately 2 inches superior to the pubis.

28

Which of the following is a functional study used to demonstrate the degree of AP motion present in the cervical spine?

Flexion and extension laterals

29

Which of the following is (are) demonstrated in a lateral projection of the cervical spine?

  1. Intervertebral foramina
  2. Zygapophyseal joints
  3. Intervertebral joints

2 & 3 ONLY

30

Which of the following is (are) demonstrated in the lateral projection of the thoracic spine?
Intervertebral spaces
Zygapophyseal joints
Intervertebral foramina

1 & 3 ONLY

31

In myelography, the contrast medium generally is injected into the

subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae.

32

Which of the following radiographic procedures requires an intrathecal injection?

Myelogram

33

All the following statements regarding an exact PA projection of the skull are true except

the midsagittal plane (MSP) is parallel to the IR.

34

Which of the following is demonstrated in a 25-degree RPO position with the CR entering 1 inch medial to the elevated ASIS?

Left sacroiliac joint

35

A radiolucent sponge can be placed under the patient's waist for a lateral projection of the lumbosacral spine to

  1. make the vertebral column parallel with the IR
  2. place the intervertebral disk spaces perpendicular to the IR
  3. decrease the amount of scatter reaching the IR

1 & 2 ONLY

36

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the lateral projection of the lumbar spine?

  1. The MSP is parallel to the tabletop.
  2. The vertebral foramina are well visualized.
  3. The pedicles are well visualized.

1 & 3 ONLY

37

The lumbar transverse process is represented by what part of the “Scotty dog” seen in a correctly positioned oblique lumbar spine?

NOSE

38

What is the name of the condition that results in the forward slipping of one vertebra on the one below it?

Spondylolisthesis

39
card image

The structure labeled 4 in Figure 2–32 is the

odontoid process

40

Which of the following will best demonstrate the lumbosacral junction in the AP position?

CR cephalad 30–35 degrees

41

The left sacroiliac joint is positioned perpendicular to the IR when the patient is positioned in a

25° to 30° LAO position.

42

Which of the following is (are) well demonstrated in the oblique position of the cervical vertebrae?

  1. Intervertebral foramina
  2. Disk spaces
  3. Zygapophyseal joints
  1. Intervertebral foramina
43

To reduce the amount of scattered radiation reaching the IR in CR/DR imaging of the lumbosacral region, in the lateral projection, which of the following is (are) recommended?

  1. Close collimation
  2. Lead mat on table posterior to the patient
  3. Decreased SID

1 & 2 ONLY

44

Which type of articulation is evaluated in arthrography?

Diarthrodial

45

Which of the following positions will demonstrate the lumbosacral zygapophyseal articulation?

30-degree RPO

46

Myelography is a diagnostic examination used to demonstrate
1. internal disk lesions.
2. posttraumatic swelling of the spinal cord.
3. posterior disk herniation.

2 & 3 ONLY

47

Which of the following is (are) demonstrated in an AP axial projection of the cervical spine?

  1. Intervertebral disk spaces
  2. C3–7 cervical bodies
  3. Zygapophyseal joints

1 & 2 ONLY

48

Structures comprising the neural, or vertebral, arch include

  1. pedicles
  2. laminae
  3. body

1 & 2 ONLY

49

Which of the following positions will provide an AP projection of the L5-S1 interspace?

Patient AP with 30- to 35-degree angle cephalad

50

Which of the following is (are) appropriate technique(s) for imaging a patient with a possible traumatic spine injury?
Instruct the patient to turn slowly and stop if anything hurts.
Maneuver the x-ray tube instead of moving the patient.
Call for help and use the log-rolling method to turn the patient.

2 & 3 ONLY

51

With the patient supine, the left side of the pelvis elevated 25 degrees, and the CR entering 1 in. medial to the left anterosuperior iliac spine (ASIS), which of the following is demonstrated?

Left sacroiliac joint

52

The RPO position of the cervical spine requires which of the following combinations of tube angle and direction?

15 to 20 degrees cephalad

53

In the anterior oblique position of the cervical spine, the CR should be directed

15 degrees caudad to C4.

54
card image

The number 2 in Figure 2–40 represents which of the following structures?

Inferior articular process

55
card image

Which of the positions illustrated in Figure A will best demonstrate the lumbar intervertebral foramina?

Number 4

56
card image

Which of the positions illustrated in the figure below will best demonstrate the lumbar zygapophyseal joints closest to the IR?

Number 1

57

Intervertebral foramina will be demonstrated in which of the following projections?

  1. Lateral cervical spine
  2. Lateral thoracic spine
  3. Lateral lumbar spine

2 and 3 only

58

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the PA axial projection of the cranium?
1. The central ray is directed caudally to the OML.

2. The petrous pyramids are projected into the lower third of the orbits.

3. The frontal sinuses are visualized.

1, 2, and 3

59
card image

The lateral coccyx image shown in the figure below was made using AEC but is overexposed. This is most likely a result of

incorrect centering of the part

60
card image

The structure labeled 5 in Figure 2–32 is the

anterior arch of C1

61
card image

What is the anatomic structure indicated by the number 3 in the radiograph in Figure 6–12?

Transverse process

62

The long, flat structures that project posteromedially from the pedicles are the

laminae

63
card image

In Figure 2–27, the structure indicated as number 7 is which of the following?

Head of rib

64

In myelography, the contrast medium generally is injected into the

subarachnoid space between the third and fourth lumbar vertebrae

65

Which of the following vertebral groups form(s) lordotic curve(s)?

1.
Cervical
2.
Thoracic
3.
Lumbar

1 and 3 only

66
card image

Which of the following is (are) accurate criticism(s) of the open-mouth projection of C1-2 seen in Figure A?

1. The MSP is not centered and perpendicular to the midline of the table.

2. The neck should be flexed more.

3. The neck should be extended more.

1 and 2 only

67

Which of the following should be performed to rule out subluxation or fracture of the cervical spine?

Horizontal beam lateral

68

Which of the following is (are) effective in reducing exposure to sensitive tissues for frontal views during scoliosis examinations?

  1. Use of PA position
  2. Use of breast shields
  3. Use of compensating filtration

1, 2, and 3

69
card image

Which of the following is (are) well demonstrated in the lumbar spine shown in Figure 2–35?

  1. Zygapophyseal articulations
  2. Intervertebral foramina
  3. Inferior articular processes

1 and 3 only

70

An accurately positioned oblique projection of the first through fourth lumbar vertebrae will demonstrate the classic “Scotty dog.” What bony structure does the Scotty dog's neck represent?

Pars interarticularis

71
card image

What is the anatomic structure indicated by number 4 in the radiograph in Figure 6–21?

Inferior articular process

72
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) correct with respect to the images shown in Figure 2–23?

  1. Image A was made with cephalad angulation.
  2. Image B was made with cephalad angulation.
  3. Images A and B were made with CR directed 15 degrees cephalad.

1 only

73

The thoracic zygapophyseal joints are demonstrated with the

midsagittal plane 20 degrees to the IR.

74

In the anterior oblique position of the cervical spine, the structures best seen are the

intervertebral foramina nearest the IR

75

The articular facets of L5-S1 are best demonstrated in a(n)

30-degree oblique

76
card image

Critique the lateral cervical spine seen in Figure 2–1 and select the most correct statement below.

The shoulders are not depressed enough.

77

Which of the following statements regarding myelography is (are) correct?

  1. Spinal puncture may be performed in the prone or flexed lateral position.
  2. Contrast medium distribution is regulated through x-ray tube angulation.
  3. The patient's neck must be in extension during Trendelenburg positions

1 and 3 only

78

The lumbar lamina is represented by what part of the “Scotty dog” seen in a correctly positioned oblique lumbar spine view?

Body

79
card image

Which of the following would best evaluate the structure labeled 4 in Figure 2–14?

Parietoacanthal projection (Waters method)

80

The hard palate is formed by the

1. ethmoid bone.

2. maxillary bone.

3. palatine bone

2 and 3 only

81

Which of the following positions/projections of the skull will result in the most shape distortion?

37° Towne

82
card image

Which of the following structures is illustrated by the number 2 in Figure 2–21?

Zygomatic arch

83
card image

The image shown in Figure 2–34 was made in what position?

Right lateral decubitus

84

Characteristics of a patient with pulmonary emphysema include
shoulder girdle elevation
increased AP diameter of the chest
hyperventilation

1 and 2 only

85

Which of the following is a major cause of bowel obstruction in children?

Intussusception

86

The structures forming the brain stem include
1. the pons
2. the medulla oblongata
3. the midbrain

1, 2, and 3

87

In which position of the shoulder is the lesser tubercle demonstrated in profile on the medial aspect of the humeral head?

Internal rotation

88
card image

In Figure A, which of the localization lines is used for the lateral projection of the skull?

Line 3

89
card image

The structure labeled 3 in Figure 2–14 is the

sphenoidal sinus

90

Which surface must be adjacent to the IR to obtain a lateral projection of the fourth finger with optimal spatial resolution?

Medial

91
card image

What is the anatomic structure indicated by number 1 in the radiograph shown in Figure 6–20?

Mandibular angle

92

Glossitis refers to inflammation of the

tongue

93
card image

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the radiograph in Figure 2–12?

  1. The patient is placed in an RAO position.
  2. The midcoronal plane is about 60 degrees to the IR.
  3. The acromion process is free of superimposition.

1, 2, and 3

94
card image

The radiographic position illustrated in Figure 6–18 is used to demonstrate

ethmoidal and frontal sinuses.

95

To demonstrate the entire circumference of the radial head, the required exposure(s) must include
epicondyles perpendicular to the IP
hand pronated
hand supinated as much as possible

1, 2, and 3

96

What is the position/projection to demonstrate the longitudinal arch of the foot, while permitting the patient to keep weight equally distributed on both feet?

Lateromedial weight-bearing lateral

97

The submentovertical (SMV) oblique axial projection of the zygomatic arches requires that the skull be rotated

15 degrees toward the affected side.

98

With the patient in the PA position and the OML and CR perpendicular to the IR, the resulting radiograph will demonstrate the petrous pyramids

completely within the orbits

99

The auditory, or eustachian, tube extends from the nasopharynx to the

middle ear.

100

Which of the following statements is (are) true regarding the PA axial projection of the paranasal sinuses?
CR and OML form a 15 degree angle with the horizontal beam.
The petrous pyramids are projected into the lower third of the orbits.
The frontal sinuses are visualized.

1, 2, and 3

101

Structures involved in blowout fractures include the

  1. orbital floor
  2. inferior rectus muscle
  3. zygoma

1 and 2 only

102

The junction of the sagittal and coronal sutures is the

bregma

103

Standard radiographic protocols may be reduced to include two views, at right angles to each other, in which of the following situations?

Emergency and trauma radiography

104

Which of the following bones participate in the formation of the acetabulum?
1. Ilium

2. Ischium

3. Pubis

1, 2, and 3

105

Which of the following sinus groups is demonstrated with the patient positioned as for a parietoacanthal projection (Waters method) with the CR directed through the patient's open mouth?

Sphenoidal

106

Which of the following is (are) associated with a Colles' fracture?

  1. Transverse fracture of the radial head
  2. Chip fracture of the ulnar styloid
  3. Posterior or backward displacement

2 and 3 only

107

If your patient is unable to stay erect for a paranasal sinus examination, which of the following alternatives should be chosen?

Lateral cross-table recumbent

108

When evaluating a PA axial projection of the skull with a 15-degree caudal angle, the radiographer should see
1. petrous pyramids in the lower third of the orbits
2. equal distance from the lateral border of the skull to the lateral rim of the orbit bilaterally
3. symmetrical petrous pyramids

1, 2, and 3

109

In which type of fracture are the fractured ends of bone forced through the skin?

Compound

110

The floor of the cranium includes all the following bones except

the occipital bone

111

Which of the following skull positions will demonstrate the cranial base, sphenoidal sinuses, atlas, and odontoid process?

Submentovertical (SMV)

112

The true lateral position of the skull uses which of the following principles?

  1. Interpupillary line perpendicular to the IR
  2. MSP perpendicular to the IR
  3. Infraorbitomeatal line (IOML) parallel to the transverse axis of the IR

1 and 3 only

113
card image

What is the anatomic structure indicated by number 3 in the radiograph in Figure 6–20?

Coronoid process

114

Which of the following positions demonstrates all the paranasal sinuses?

Lateral

115

Which of the following positions is essential in radiography of the paranasal sinuses?

Erect

116

Which of the following positions is/are most frequently used to demonstrate the sphenoid sinuses?
1. Modified Waters (mouth open)
2. Lateral
3. PA axial

1 and 2 only

117

Which of the following structures should be visualized through the foramen magnum in an AP axial projection (Towne method) of the skull for occipital bone?

  1. Posterior clinoid processes
  2. Dorsum sella
  3. Posterior arch of C1

1 and 2 only

118

In the AP axial projection (Towne method) of the skull, with the CR directed 30 degrees caudad to the orbitomeatal line (OML) and passing midway between the external auditory meati, which of the following is best demonstrated?

Occipital bone

119

The main forms of COPD include
1. chronic bronchitis.
2. pulmonary emphysema.
3. asthma.

1 and 2 only

120

Referring to Figure 2–38, which of the following positions requires that baseline number 3 be parallel to the IR?

SMV

121

In a lateral projection of the nasal bones, the CR is directed

1/2 inch distal to the nasion

122

With the patient's head in a PA position and the CR directed 20 degrees cephalad, which part of the mandible will be best visualized?

Rami

123

An axial projection of the clavicle is often helpful in demonstrating a fracture that is not visualized using a perpendicular CR. When examining the clavicle in the PA axial projection, how should the Central Ray directed?

Caudad

124
card image

What is the degree of difference between the baselines numbered 2 and 3 in Figure 2–38 and used for various projections of the skull?

7 degrees

125
card image

What should be done to better demonstrate the mandibular rami seen in PA projection in Figure A?

angle the CR cephalad

126

Angulation of the central ray may be required
1. to avoid superimposition of overlying structures.

2. to avoid foreshortening or self-superimposition.

3. to project through certain articulations.

1, 2, and 3

127

Lateral deviation of the nasal septum may be best demonstrated in the

parietoacanthal (Waters method) projection

128

Which of the following statements is (are) correct regarding the parietoacanthial projection (Waters' method) of the skull?

1.
The head is rested on the extended chin.
2.
The orbitomeatal line (OML) is perpendicular to the (IR).
3.
The maxillary antra should be projected above the petrosa.

1 and 3 only

129
card image

Which of the four baselines illustrated in Figure 6–15 should be used for a lateral projection of facial bones?

Baseline 3

130
card image

Which of the following methods was used to obtain the image seen in Figure 2–6?

erect PA, chin extended, OML 15 degree from horizontal

131

Which of the following statements regarding the PA oblique scapular Y projection of the shoulder joint is (are) true?
1. The midsagittal plane should be about 60 degrees to the IR.
2. The scapular borders should be superimposed on the humeral shaft.
3. An oblique projection of the shoulder is obtained.

2 and 3 only

132

When modifying the PA axial projection of the skull to demonstrate superior orbital fissures, the central ray is directed

20° to 25° caudad.

133

The four major arteries supplying the brain include the

  1. brachiocephalic artery
  2. common carotid arteries
  3. vertebral arteries

2 and 3 only

134
card image

The letter B in Figure 2–13 indicates a

left anterior rib

135

All elbow fat pads are best demonstrated in which position?

Lateral

136

With a patient in the PA position and the OML perpendicular to the table, a 15- to 20-degree caudal angulation would place the petrous ridges in the lower third of the orbit. To achieve the same result in a baby or a small child, it is necessary for the radiographer to modify the angulation to

10 to 15 degrees caudal

137

To demonstrate the mandibular body in the PA position, the

CR is directed perpendicular to the IR.