AAP Wiley Quiz 7 Spinal Cord and Nerves

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1

Spinal cord extends from the foramen magnum of the skull to the first or second lumbar vertebrae, where it terminates in the ______.

conus medullaris

2

How many pairs of spinal nerves do we have?

31

3

List the pairs of spinal nerves?

8 cervical nerves

12 thoracic nerves

5 lumbar nerves

5 sacral nerves

1 coccyx nerve

4

The ventral rami of all spinal nerves except T2 through T12 form complex networks of nerves known as _____?

plexuses

5

The communication center that is a continuation of the brain.

spinal cord

6

The spinal cord extends from the _________ of the skull to the first or second lumbar vertebrae, where it terminates at the _________.

foramen magnum

conus medullaris

7

A fibrous extension of the conus medullarius covered by pia matter, extends even farther to attach to the posterior coccyx.

filum terminale

8

Saw toothed shelves of pia mater, secures the spinal cord to the dura matter.

denticulate ligaments

9

A lumbar puncture is usually performed _______.

below L3 into the spinal meninges that extend below the spinal cord

10

List the spinal meninges from thickest to thinest.

dura mater

arachnoid matter

pia mater

11

Where are the two enlargements located in the spinal cord?

cervical

lumbar

12

Why does the spinal cord have these two enlargements?

The nerves in these areas serve the upper and lower limbs.

13

Collection of spinal nerve roots.

cauda equina

14

Located in the center of the spinal cord and shaped like the letter H.

Gray Matter

15

Human spinal nerves contain both sensory and and motor so therefore they are considered ________.

mixed nerves

16

These plexuses primarily serve the __________________.

muscles and skin of the limbs

17

The subdivision of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that regulates body activities that are generally not under conscious control.

autonomic nervous system

18

autonomic nervous system aka _______________

involuntary nervous system

19

somatic nervous system aka ____________

voluntary nervous system

20

The ANS has two major functional subdivisions: _______________

sympathetic and parasympathetic

21

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

Origin in the CNS (contains preganglionic cell body)

Brain stem nuclei of cranial nerves 3, 7, 9, 10

Spinal cord segments sacral nerves S2-S4

22

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

Location of ganglia (contains the postganglionic cell body)

Located close to the target organ (terminal ganglia) or within the wall of the target organ (intramural ganglia)

23

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

Axon Lengths

Long preganglionic axons

Short postganglionic axons

24

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

White and Grey Rami communication

None

25

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

Degree of branching of preganglionic axons

Minimal

26

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

Functional role

Performs maintenance functions; conserves and stores energy; rest-and-digest response

27

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

Neurotransmitters

Preganglionic axons release acetylcholine (cholinergic fibers)

Post ganglionic axons release acetylcholine

28

Parasympathetic (Craniosacral):

Effects of the division

more specific and local

29

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

Origin in the CNS (contains the preganglionic cell body)

Lateral horns of the grey matter of the spinal cord T1-L2

30

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

Location of ganglia (contains the postganglionic cell body)

Located close to the CNS, alongside the vertebral column (sympathetic trunk ganglia) or anterior to the vertebral column (collateral ganglia)

31

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

Axon lengths

Short preganglionic axons

Long postganglionic axons

32

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

White and grey rami communicates

Each white ramus communicans contains myelinated preganglionic axons

Each gray ramus communicans contains nonmyelinated preganglionic axons

33

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

Degree of branching of preganglionic axons

extensive

34

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

Functional role

Prepares the body for emergency situations and vigorous physical activity, fight-or-flight response

35

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

Neurotransmitters

Preganglionic axons release acetylcholine

36

Sympathetic (Thoracolumbar):

Effects of the division

more general and widespread

37
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