Chapter 14 - Antiepileptic Drugs

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Chapter 14 - Antiepileptic Drugs
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1

The nurse instructs a patient receiving phenytoin (Dilantin) to visit the dentist regularly and perform frequent oral hygiene. What common adverse effect is the nurse educating the patient about for this medication?

  1. Oral candidiasis
  2. Increased incidence of dental caries
  3. Increased risk of tooth abscess
  4. Gingival hyperplasia

D. Gingival hyperplasia

2

While obtaining a patient history, the nurse notes that the patient has been prescribed ethosuximide (Zarontin). The nurse suspects that the patient has which type of seizure?

  1. Partial
  2. Generalized
  3. Absence
  4. Tonic-clonic

C. Absence

3

While teaching a patient newly diagnosed with a seizure disorder, what does the nurse state as the goal of pharmacologic therapy of this medication?

  1. Eradicate all seizure activity and discontinue prescribed medication after the patient is seizure free for 3 months.
  2. Maximize drug dosages to control seizure activity.
  3. Reduce seizure occurrence to one per week.
  4. Maximally reducing seizure activity while minimizing the adverse effects of medication therapy.

D. Maximally reducing seizure activity while minimizing the adverse effects of medication therapy.

4

While completing discharge teaching for a patient prescribed an antiepileptic drug, the nurse instructs the patient of which potential complication if the medication is stopped abruptly?

  1. Rebound seizure activity
  2. Orthostatic hypotension
  3. Acute withdrawal syndrome
  4. Confusion and delirium

A. Rebound seizure activity

5

The nurse is caring for a postoperative craniotomy patient. Which prescribed drug does the nurse make sure is readily available to treat acute seizure activity?

  1. Flumazenil (Romazicon)
  2. Gabapentin (Neurontin)
  3. Diazepam (Valium)
  4. Ethosuximide (Zarontin)

C. Diazepam (Valium)

6

When administering intravenous (IV) phenytoin (Dilantin), which action should the nurse perform?

  1. Flush the line with normal saline before and after administration to prevent precipitation.
  2. Administer through peripheral IV sites only.
  3. Monitor blood pressure and pulse oximetry.
  4. Obtain an infusion pump for the medication.

A. Flush the line with normal saline before and after administration to prevent precipitation.

7

A patient receiving valproic acid (Depakote) should be monitored for which adverse effects? Select all that apply.

  1. Tremors
  2. Insomnia
  3. Hepatoxicity
  4. Weight gain
  5. Hypoglycemia

A. Tremors

C. Hepatoxicity

D. Weight gain