Chapter 14 - Antiepileptic Drugs
The nurse instructs a patient receiving phenytoin (Dilantin) to visit the dentist regularly and perform frequent oral hygiene. What common adverse effect is the nurse educating the patient about for this medication?
- Oral candidiasis
- Increased incidence of dental caries
- Increased risk of tooth abscess
- Gingival hyperplasia
D. Gingival hyperplasia
While obtaining a patient history, the nurse notes that the patient has been prescribed ethosuximide (Zarontin). The nurse suspects that the patient has which type of seizure?
While teaching a patient newly diagnosed with a seizure disorder, what does the nurse state as the goal of pharmacologic therapy of this medication?
- Eradicate all seizure activity and discontinue prescribed medication after the patient is seizure free for 3 months.
- Maximize drug dosages to control seizure activity.
- Reduce seizure occurrence to one per week.
- Maximally reducing seizure activity while minimizing the adverse effects of medication therapy.
D. Maximally reducing seizure activity while minimizing the adverse effects of medication therapy.
While completing discharge teaching for a patient prescribed an antiepileptic drug, the nurse instructs the patient of which potential complication if the medication is stopped abruptly?
- Rebound seizure activity
- Orthostatic hypotension
- Acute withdrawal syndrome
- Confusion and delirium
A. Rebound seizure activity
The nurse is caring for a postoperative craniotomy patient. Which prescribed drug does the nurse make sure is readily available to treat acute seizure activity?
- Flumazenil (Romazicon)
- Gabapentin (Neurontin)
- Diazepam (Valium)
- Ethosuximide (Zarontin)
C. Diazepam (Valium)
When administering intravenous (IV) phenytoin (Dilantin), which action should the nurse perform?
- Flush the line with normal saline before and after administration to prevent precipitation.
- Administer through peripheral IV sites only.
- Monitor blood pressure and pulse oximetry.
- Obtain an infusion pump for the medication.
A. Flush the line with normal saline before and after administration to prevent precipitation.
A patient receiving valproic acid (Depakote) should be monitored for which adverse effects? Select all that apply.
- Weight gain
D. Weight gain