breakdown of organic molecules into their components
process of chewing
contracting waves in smooth muscles of intestines followed by relaxation
Means by which molecules are moved out of the digestive tract and distributed throughout the body
act of swallowing
mixing and churning
"space" or room
"punching bag" / "grape"
In the stomach the _______cells secrete HCI and the __________cells secrete pepsinogen
3 parts of the small intestine
duodnum, jejunum, ileum
What are rugae and some places they may be found
folds or ridges;
stomach, vagina, roof of mouth
3 structural manifestations of the snall intestine that increase the surface area for absorption
1-microvilli (minute projections in columnar epithelial lining)
2-villi (finger mucosatonic)
The lymphoid cluster of tissue at the distal ileum is referred to as
"bulges" in the large intestines
"blebs" in the large intestines
Complete dental formula for deciduous (milk) teeth
2, 1,0,2,2 X2;
2 incisors, 1canine, 0 premolars, 2 molars; top and bottom starting from front center and counter
Food binded together with saliva
Food that has been processed in the stomach (resembles a creamy mass)-acidic
5 functions of the liver
produce bile (emulsifies fat);
initial processing of nutrient rich blood;
glucose stored as glycogen-amino acids from blood used to make protein
removes debris(bacteria) from the blood;
picks uo Oxygen and nutrients in the blood
individual filtration units in the liver
concerted into pepsin which digests proteins
promotes pepsin activity and kills microorganisms
transformation of large lipid droplets into smaller droplets by bile salts;
large lipid molecules BROKE APART into small lipids
what does a catalyst do?
increases the rate of a chemical reaction withoug becoming part of the product
What is an enzyme?
biological catalyst; protein in nature
What is a Substrate?
substance on which a catalyst works
Where are "gastric pits" found?
Where are "clumps" of Peyer's Patches found?
Where do you see duadenal mucas glands?
Produce mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestines
produce a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth
produces a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted in the duodenum
produces bile that is secreted in the duodenum via the bile duct
produces HCI and pepsinogen
found in mucosa of the small intestine; produces intestinal juice
salivary gland that produces a secretion that is mainly serous
3structures found in the portal triad regions of the liver
hepatic portal vein
Where are the Kupffer cells of the liver found
they remove debris such as bacteria
pancreas has 2 major populations of secretory cells (islets and acinar cells) which population serves the digestive process?
region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body
wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum
the "gullet"; no digestive/absoptive function
membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth
greater omentum, lesser omentum, mesentery
3 structures continuous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum
2 regions that break down food mechanically
oral cavity and stomach
serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall
large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine
lube for both air and food
valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum
area between the teeth and lips/cheeks
initiates protein digestion
3 parts of mucosa of the alimentary canal(digestive tract)
2 muscularis parts of the alimentary canal
2 serosa parts of the alimentary canal
3 critical factors that influence enzyme activity
"perameters for activity"
What does Lugos solution test for? what color is a positive test?
LUGALS tests for STARCH
Positive is BLUE-BLACK color
What does Benedicts solution test for? What color is a positive test?
BENEDICTS tests for SUGAR (starch broke down into smaller pieces)
Positive test is GREEN-ORANGE
What does Biuret solution test for? What color is positive?
BIURETs test for PROTEINS.
Positive tests is LIGHT BLUE to VIOLET
What does Trypsin break down?
TRYPSIN breaks down PROTEINS (colorless-bright yellow);
Term that describes the conformational inactivation of a protein?
Why are the (enzymatic) experiments so concerned with pH?
the body wants a neutral, not acidic, substance because acid will erode the tissue
At what pH does salivary amylase work best?
7.4 low pH
At what pH does pepsin work best?
At what pH does Pancreatic lipase work best?
3 characteristics of an enzyme
speeds up reaction;
not involved in the reaction
BREAKS APART 3 dimensional parts of PROTEINS
The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell
used as a synthetic protein (amino acids)
The overall function of the digestive system is to breakdown or ________foodstuffs and them __________them through the GI tract
The esophageal mucosa is composed of _________ epithelium.
3 manor functions of the mucosa are _ _ _
taking food into the mouth
passage into blood
What parts make up the alimentary canal-digestive tract (Mouth to anys in 9 meters long)
What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?
liver, pancreas, salivary glands, gall bladder, teeth
Characteristics of Mucosa layer of Alimentary canal...
innermost layer(where food would be traveling), connective tissue, secretion/absoption/protection
Characteristics of submucosa layer?
loose connective tissue
blood vessels, nerves (not blood) nourish surrounding layers