Digestive System

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Digestion /Metabolism
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6th grade, 7th grade, 8th grade, 9th grade, 10th grade, 11th grade, 12th grade, College: First year, College: Second year
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a&p ii
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1

breakdown of organic molecules into their components

Digestion

2

process of chewing

Mastication

3

contracting waves in smooth muscles of intestines followed by relaxation

Peristalsis

4

Means by which molecules are moved out of the digestive tract and distributed throughout the body

absorption

5

act of swallowing

deglutition

6

mixing and churning

segmentation

7

"space" or room

vestibule

8

attachment

frenulum

9

"punching bag" / "grape"

uvula

10

arch

fauces

11

In the stomach the _______cells secrete HCI and the __________cells secrete pepsinogen

parietal;
Zymogenic (chief)

12

3 parts of the small intestine

duodnum, jejunum, ileum

13

What are rugae and some places they may be found

folds or ridges;
stomach, vagina, roof of mouth

14

3 structural manifestations of the snall intestine that increase the surface area for absorption

1-microvilli (minute projections in columnar epithelial lining)
2-villi (finger mucosatonic)
3-circular folds

15

The lymphoid cluster of tissue at the distal ileum is referred to as

Peyer's patches

16

"bulges" in the large intestines

haustra

17

"blebs" in the large intestines

diverticuli

18

Complete dental formula for deciduous (milk) teeth

2, 1,0,2,2
2, 1,0,2,2 X2;
2 incisors, 1canine, 0 premolars, 2 molars; top and bottom starting from front center and counter

19

Food binded together with saliva

Bolus

20

Food that has been processed in the stomach (resembles a creamy mass)-acidic

Chyme

21

5 functions of the liver

produce bile (emulsifies fat);
initial processing of nutrient rich blood;
glucose stored as glycogen-amino acids from blood used to make protein
removes debris(bacteria) from the blood;
picks uo Oxygen and nutrients in the blood

22

individual filtration units in the liver

Kupffer cells

23

Pepsinogen

concerted into pepsin which digests proteins

24

Hydrocholoric acid

promotes pepsin activity and kills microorganisms

25

Emulsification

transformation of large lipid droplets into smaller droplets by bile salts;
large lipid molecules BROKE APART into small lipids

26

what does a catalyst do?

increases the rate of a chemical reaction withoug becoming part of the product

27

What is an enzyme?

biological catalyst; protein in nature

28

What is a Substrate?

substance on which a catalyst works

29

Where are "gastric pits" found?

Stomach

30

Where are "clumps" of Peyer's Patches found?

Ilium

31

Where do you see duadenal mucas glands?

Duodenum

32

Produce mucus; found in the submucosa of the small intestines

Duodenal glands

33

produce a product containing amylase that begins starch breakdown in the mouth

salivary glands

34

produces a whole spectrum of enzymes and an alkaline fluid that is secreted in the duodenum

Pancreas

35

produces bile that is secreted in the duodenum via the bile duct

liver

36

produces HCI and pepsinogen

gastric glands

37

found in mucosa of the small intestine; produces intestinal juice

intestinalcrypts

38

salivary gland that produces a secretion that is mainly serous

parotid gland

39

3structures found in the portal triad regions of the liver

bile duct
hepatic artery
hepatic portal vein

40

Where are the Kupffer cells of the liver found

sinus wall
they remove debris such as bacteria

41

pancreas has 2 major populations of secretory cells (islets and acinar cells) which population serves the digestive process?

acinar cells

42

Anus

region containing two sphincters through which feces are expelled from the body

43

Appendix

wormlike sac that outpockets from the cecum

44

esophagus

the "gullet"; no digestive/absoptive function

45

frenulum

membrane securing the tongue to the floor of the mouth

46

greater omentum, lesser omentum, mesentery

3 structures continuous with and representing modifications of the peritoneum

47

2 regions that break down food mechanically

oral cavity and stomach

48

parietal peritoneum

serous lining of the abdominal cavity wall

49

Peyer's patches

large collections of lymphoid tissue found in the submucosa of the small intestine

50

pharynx

lube for both air and food

51

pylotic valve

valve controlling food movement from the stomach into the duodenum

52

vestibule

area between the teeth and lips/cheeks

53

stomach

initiates protein digestion

54

3 parts of mucosa of the alimentary canal(digestive tract)

epithelium;
liminapropria
muscularis mucosae

55

2 muscularis parts of the alimentary canal

longitudinal muscle
circular muscle

56

2 serosa parts of the alimentary canal

epithelium
connective tissue

57

3 critical factors that influence enzyme activity
"perameters for activity"

temperature
pH
substrate concentration

58

What does Lugos solution test for? what color is a positive test?

LUGALS tests for STARCH
Positive is BLUE-BLACK color

59

What does Benedicts solution test for? What color is a positive test?

BENEDICTS tests for SUGAR (starch broke down into smaller pieces)
Positive test is GREEN-ORANGE

60

What does Biuret solution test for? What color is positive?

BIURETs test for PROTEINS.
Positive tests is LIGHT BLUE to VIOLET

61

What does Trypsin break down?

TRYPSIN breaks down PROTEINS (colorless-bright yellow);

62

Term that describes the conformational inactivation of a protein?

Denaturation

63

Why are the (enzymatic) experiments so concerned with pH?

the body wants a neutral, not acidic, substance because acid will erode the tissue

64

At what pH does salivary amylase work best?

7.4 low pH

65

At what pH does pepsin work best?

2.6 (acidic)

66

At what pH does Pancreatic lipase work best?

7.5-7.8

67

3 characteristics of an enzyme

reusable;
speeds up reaction;
not involved in the reaction

68

BREAKS APART 3 dimensional parts of PROTEINS

denturation

69

The sum of all chemical reactions in a cell

Metabolism

70

BAPNA

used as a synthetic protein (amino acids)

71

The overall function of the digestive system is to breakdown or ________foodstuffs and them __________them through the GI tract

digest;
absorb

72

The esophageal mucosa is composed of _________ epithelium.

stratified squamous

73

3 manor functions of the mucosa are _ _ _

secretion
absorption
protection

74

taking food into the mouth

ingestion

75

peristalsis

propulsion

76

passage into blood

absorption

77

enzymes

chemical digestion

78

segmentation

mechanical digestion

79

What parts make up the alimentary canal-digestive tract (Mouth to anys in 9 meters long)

Esophagus
stomach
small intestine
large intestine

80

What are the accessory organs of the digestive system?

liver, pancreas, salivary glands, gall bladder, teeth

81

Characteristics of Mucosa layer of Alimentary canal...

innermost layer(where food would be traveling), connective tissue, secretion/absoption/protection

82

Characteristics of submucosa layer?

loose connective tissue
blood vessels, nerves (not blood) nourish surrounding layers