RAD 111 Test 5 Study Guide
Deals with variety of human societies and cultures and examines their similarities and differences.
Simply means the differences inherent among people.
Human diversity (Cultural diversity)
Establish behaviors of people. Can be for a lifetime and provide comfort.
Means that people now cross borders into other countries to work, go to school, receive medical care, visit, and live. Because of this, nations, societies, and businesses have become increasingly cross-cultural or multicultural.
Defined as possessing a set of attitudes, behaviors, and policies that come together in a system, or among individuals, that enable effective interactions in a cross-cultural framework.
List the key diversity traits.
- Ethnicity/national origin
- Sexual orientation
- Mental ability
- Physical ability
Play major role in how individuals perceive others.
Process by which people of diverse backgrounds slowly give up their original cultural language and identity and try to merge into another culture (usually the majority).
Diminishes the accomplishments, contributions, and values of one culture in favor of those of the mainstream.
List the the aging generations (subsets of population).
- World War II
- Baby Boomers (1946-1964)
- Generation X (1965-1980)
- Generation Y (1981-1999)
- Generation Z (2000-present)
The most significant subset, because of the impact they will have on the population. This subset is considered to be generally healthy and well educated.
Relates to a person's distinctive racial, national, religious, linguistic, or cultural heritage.
The ability of an individual to be able to negotiate competently two or more cultures (the mainstream's culture & their own culture).
Members of U.S mainstream are said to value the following:
- Activity/hard work
- Personal achievement/success
- Affluence, consumerism, and material comfort
- Openness, directness, and being well informed
- Knowledge of cultural differences is key
- Respect others/self
- Know your personal biases
- Understand individual's values
- Seek to learn from those you meet/interact with
- Appreciate social value of multiculturalism
- Empathy for others
Five elements that contribute to becoming culturally competent.
- Value diversity
- Develop capacity for cultural self-assessment
- Become aware of dynamics of cross-cultural interaction
- Institutionalize cultural knowledge
- Develop adaptations of service delivery that reflects an understanding of a multicultural environment
To provide high-quality and effective care for all patients, health care providers need to understand the following six areas of human cultural diversity and how these areas influence the delivery of care.
- Environmental control
- Biologic variations
- Social organizations
Four essential core values of human rights law that are particularly important when thinking about people with disabilities.
Person's self-reliance, independence, liberty, rights, privacy, individual choice, freedom of will, and self-contained ability to decide.
Doing of good; active promotion of goodness, kindness, and charity.
Articulated statement of role morality as seen by the members of a profession.
Code of Ethics
Belief that the worth of actions is determined by their ends or consequences; actions are right or wrong according to the balance of their good and bad consequences.
Situations requiring moral judgement between two or more equally problem-fraught alternatives; two or more competing moral norms are present, creating a challenge about what to do.
Gross violation of commonly held standards of decency or human rights.
Bodies of systematically related moral principles used to resolve ethical dilemmas.
Ethical reflections that emphasize an intimate personal relationship value system that includes such virtues as sympathy, compassion, fidelity, discernment, and love.
Ethics of Care
Strict observance of promises or duties; loyalty and faithfulness to others.
Equitable, fair, or just conduct in dealing with others.
Regulations established by government and applicable to people within a certain political subdivision.
Can be limiting and are not comprehensive in controlling all possible behaviors.
Can be politically motivated and applied unequally.
Rights of individuals or groups that are established and guaranteed by law.
Basis for rights-based ethical theory; each individual is protected and allowed to pursue personal projects.
General, universal guides to action that are derived from so-called basic moral truths that should be respected unless a morally compelling reason exists not to do so; also referred to as ethical principles.
Rights of individuals, or groups that exist separately from governmental or institutional guarantees; usually asserted based on moral principles or rules.
Generally accepted customs, principles, or habits of right living and conduct in a society and the individual's practice in relation to these.
Belief that actions themselves, rather than consequences, determine the worth of actions; actions are right or wrong according to the morality of the acts themselves.
Ethical principle that places high value on avoiding harm to others.
Composed of efforts and behaviors that society holds as valuable and worthy. One of several generally accepted criteria that serve to distinguish a profession from other occupations or trades.
Specific to an occupation and defined by members of the profession at many levels.
Often defined as the science of rightness and wrongness of human conduct as known by natural reason.
Combination of societal laws and values.
System of Ethics (Application, Control, Enabling Source, Sanctions).
- Application - Specific group
- Control - Within group
- Enabling Source - Codes of Ethics
- Sanctions - Expulsion
System of Law (Application, Control, Enabling Source, Sanctions).
- Application - Political subdivision
- Control - Outside group
- Enabling Source - Legislation
- Sanctions - Fines, prison
System of Morals (Application, Control, Enabling Source, Sanctions).
- Application - Individuals
- Control - Conscience
- Enabling Source - Religious writing
- Sanctions - Shame, guilt
Defined by laws and morals.
Defined by two distinct documents, professional Standards of Conduct and Scope of Practice. Establishes norms for professional conduct.
Sources for Ethical Attitudes.
The ARRT Code of Ethics is composed of two parts. What are these two parts and what do they deal with?
- Part A - deals with behaviors a professional should aspire to achieve
- Part B - deals with mandatory rules of acceptable professional conduct
List Ethical Theories.
- Social Contracts
- Rights-based ethics
- Principle-based ethics
- Virtue-based ethics
Steps taken during ethical analysis.
- Identify the problem
- Develop alternative solutions
- Select best solution
- Defend chosen selection
Steps taken when solving ethical dilemmas.
- Examination of problem
- Determination of alternatives
- Decision making
List the basic ethical principles.
List the different Professional relationships.
- Toward patients
- Toward physicians
- Toward co-workers/other health care providers
How to avoid Ethical conflicts.
- Understand some situations are unavoidable
- Clearly understand the right/wrong thing to do
- Choose right thing to do
- When unsure, research professional standards of conduct and ethical principles as a guide
Use of moral principles as a basis for defending a chosen path of action in resolving an ethical dilemma.
Belief system based on a set of moral principles that are embedded in a common morality.
Manners and attitudes generally accepted by members of a profession.
Belief that individual rights provide the vital protection of life, liberty, expression, and property.
ARRT's mandatory standards of minimally acceptable professional conduct. These are enforcable and can result in sanctions should the ARRT determine the certificate holder has violated any of the rules.
Rules of Ethics
Relationship that exists when two mutually dependent groups in a society recognize certain expectations of each other and conduct their affairs accordingly.
Practice behaviors that are defined by members of a profession.
Standards of Professional Conduct
Collection or set of values that an individual or group has as each person's personal guide.
Duty to tell the truth and avoid deception.
Traits of character that are socially valued, such as courage.
Ethical theory that emphasizes the agents who perform actions and make choices.
__________ and __________ form the framework of Virtue-based ethics.