AAP Lab Wiley Quiz 6

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Nervous Tissue Skeletal Muscle Cell
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1

Most of the muscle tissue in the body is

Skeletal Muscle

2

Skeletal muscle is made up of these large, long cylindrical cells

Muscle Fibers

3

The cytoplasm of a muscle cell

Sarcoplasm

4

The nuclei are pushed peripherally by the longitudinally arranged ______________.

myofibrils

5

Long, rod-shaped organelles that nearly filled the sarcoplasm

myofibrils

6

Electron microscopes have revealed that myofibrils are made up of of even smaller threadlike structures called ____________.

myofilaments

7

Myofilaments are composed of two contractile proteins named ______ and ______.

actin (thin)

myosin (thick)

8

The actual contractile units of muscle

sacromeres

From Z line to Z line

9

This releases Ca2 ++

Sarcoplasmic Reticulum

10

At each junction of the A and I bands, the sarcolemma indents into the muscle cell, forming a ____________________.

Transverse Tubule (T tubule)

11

T tubules run deep between the muscle fibers between cross channels or __________________.

terminal cisterns

12

Terminal cisterns of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum are called _________________.

sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR)

13

Regions where the SR terminal cisterns border a T tubule on each side are called __________.

triads

14

Each muscle fiber is enclosed in a delicate, areolar connective tissue sheath called _______________.

endomysium

15

Several sheathed muscle fibers are wrapped by a collagen membrane called ____________.

perimysium

16

A bundle of muscle fibers covered by perimysium is called ____________.

fascicle

17

A large number of fascicles are bound together by a coarser overcoat of dense irregular connective tissue called __________________.

epimysium

18

All three sheaths, endomysium, perimysium, epimysium, converge to form strong cordlike __________ or sheet like aponeuroses.

tendons

19

Attaches muscles to each other or indirectly to bone.

aponeuroses

20

A muscles more movable attachment.

insertion

21

A muscles fixed or immovable attachment.

origin

22

Put these in order from LARGEST to SMALLEST:

Muscle Fiber

Fascicle

Bone

Myofibril

Muscle

Myofilament

  1. Bone
  2. Muscle
  3. Fascicle
  4. Muscle Fiber
  5. Myofibril
  6. Myofilament
23

The voluntary skeletal muscle cells must be stimulated by ___________.

nerve impulses

24

The junction between an axon of a motor neuron and a muscle fiber is called a _____________.

neuromuscular junction

25

Each axon of the motor neuron usually divides into many branches called _______.

terminal branches

26

A neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates makes up the functional structure called the ____________.

motor unit

27

The neuron and muscle fiber membranes are separated by a small fluid filled gap called _____________.

synaptic cleft

28

Within the axon terminals are many mitochondria and vesicles containing a neurontransmitter called _________.

Acetylcholine (ACh)

29

`A muscle fiber is a _________.

muscle cell

30

This contractile protein forms the thin filaments.

actin

31

This indentation of the sarcolemma carries electrical signals deep into the muscle cells.

T tubule

32

Sarcomeres consist of ________.

orderly arrangements of actin and myosin

33

Terminal cisterns ________.

are made of smooth endoplasmic reticulum

34

A triad consists of ________.

terminal cisternae and T-tubules

35

This strong, cord­like structure attaches muscles to bones.

tendon

36

Tendons differ from ligaments in that ________.

tendons bind muscle to bone and ligaments bind bone to bone

37

The space between the axon terminal and the sarcolemma of a muscle fiber is called the ________.

synaptic cleft

38

A neuron and all the muscle fibers it stimulates is called a ________.

motor unit

39

The function of the neuromuscular junction is to ________.

convey a signal from the nervous system to skeletal muscle

40

At the neuromuscular junction, the electrical signal of the nerve causes the axon terminal to release ________.

acetylcholine (ACh)

41

Acetylcholine (ACh) is the neurotransmitter of axon terminals at the neuromuscular junction. It binds to receptors on the ________.

muscle membrane (sarcolemma)

42

List PNS Neuroglia (2)

Schwann cells

Satellite cells

43

PNS neuroglia; myelinate axons of PNS neurons
- wraps around axon creating myelin sheath

Schwann cells

44

PNS neuroglia; regulate environment around neuron cell bodies in ganglia

Satellite cells

45

List CNS Neuroglia.

all octopus eat macaroni

- Astrocytes
- Oligodendrocytes
- Ependymal Cells
- Microglia

46

CNS neuroglia; maintain the blood-brain barrier

Astrocytes

47

CNS neuroglia; myelinate axons of CNS neuroglia

Oligodendrocytes

48

CNS neuroglia; produce, monitor & circulate cerebrospinal fluid

Ependymal cells

49

CNS neuroglia; act as phagocytes

Microglial Cells

50
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Gaps between Schwann cells on a myelinated axon

Myelin Sheath Gap

(Nodes of Ranvier)

51

Neuron Classification - List Structures

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- Unipolar neurons
- Bipolar neurons
- Multipolar neurons

52
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Structural classification; neuron one very short process
- nearly all neurons that conduct processes toward CNS are ____________

(sensory neurons in PNS)

Unipolar Neurons

53
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Name this neuron classification.

Unipolar Neuron

54
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Structural classification; neurons that have two processes
- rare, found in special senses (eye, ear & olfactory mucosae)

Bipolar Neurons

55
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Name this neuron classification.

Bipolar Neurons

56
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Structural classification; neurons that have many processes (multiple dendrites, one axon)
- neurons in brain & spinal chord
- neurons that conduct impulses away from CNS

Multipolar Neurons

57
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Name this neuron classification.

Multipolar Neurons

58

Neuron Classification - List 3 Functions

- Sensory (afferent) neurons
- Motor (efferent) neurons
- Interneurons

59

Functional classification; neurons that deliver information from the body to CNS
- typically unipolar in structure
- cell bodies found in PNS ganglia

Sensory (Afferent) Neurons

60

Functional classification; neurons that carry motor commands from CNS to effectors in body
- typically multipolar in structure
- cell body found in CNS nuclei

Motor (Efferent) Neurons

61

Bundle of axons in PNS

Nerve

62

Bundle of axons in CNS

Tract

63

Functions classification, neurons that connect sensory & motor neurons
- structurally multipolar
- cell bodies always found in CNS nuclei

Interneurons

64

contain both sensory & motor fibers

Mixed Neurons

65
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Connective tissue that covers each individual axon of a neuron

Endoneurium

66
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67
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Connective tissue that covers bundles of axons (fascicles)

Perineurium

68
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Name red box.

Perineurium

Connective tissue that covers bundles of axons (fascicles)

69
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Bundles of axons

Fascicles

70
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Connective tissue that covers an entire nerve

Epineurium

71

The basic functional unit of the nervous system is the neuron. What is the major function of this cell type?

To generate and transmit nerve impulses

72

Support the neurons; may serve nutritive function and help regulate the chemical environment of the neurons

Astroctyes

73

line cavities of the brain (and spinal cord)
aid in circulation of CF

ependymal cells

74

Name the PNS neuroglial that forms myelin

Shwann Cell

75

Name the PNS neuroglial that surrounds dorsal root ganglion neurons

Satellite cells

76

Junction of point of close contact between neurons

synaptic cleft

77

Neuron serving as part of the conduction pathway between sensory and motor neurons

interneuron

78

Ganglia and spinal and cranial nerves

PNS

79

Neuron that conducts impulses away from the CNS to muscles and glands

Efferent

80

Neuron that conducts impulses toward the CNS from the body periphery

Afferent

81

Chemicals released by neurons that stimulate or inhibit other neurons or effectors

Neurotransmitters

82

Region of the cell body from which the axon originates

Axon Hillock

83

Secretes neurotransmitters

Axon terminal

84

Receptive region of a neuron

dendrite and neuronal cell body

85

insulates the nerve fibers

myelin sheath

86

site of the nucleus and most important metabolic area

neuronal cell body

87

impulse generator and transmitter

Axon

88

What substance is found in synaptic vesicles of the axon terminal?

Neurotransmitters

89

What role does neurotransmitters play in neurotransmission?

Carries electrical impulse from one neuron to the next

90

What anatomical characteristic determines whether a particular neuron is classified as uni-polar, bipolar, or multi-polar?

The number of processes issuing from the cell body

91

Which of the neuron types is/are unipolar?

Sensory Neuron

92

Which is/are most likely multipolar?

Motor neuron and interneuron

93

Define mixed nerve

Nerve containing both sensory and motor fibers

94
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Motor Neuron

95
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Dorsal Root Ganglion

Cell Bodies

96
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Cardiac Muscle Cells

97
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Epineurium

Nerve

98
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Satellite Cells

Dorsal Root Ganglion

99
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Fascicle

Skeletal Muscle

100
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Neuroglia

Multipolar Neuron

101
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Dendrites

Multipolar Neuron

102
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Neuroglia

Multipolar Neuron

103
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Myelinated Nerve Fiber

Nerve

104
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Fascicles

Nerve

105
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Perineum

Nerve

106
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Perimysium

Skeletal Muscle

107
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Perimysium

Skeletal Muscle

108
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Schwann Cell Nuclei

Nerve

109
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Smooth Muscle Fibers

110
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Perimysium

Skeletal Muscle

111
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Smooth Fiber

112
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Somatic Motor Neurons

113
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Neuroglia Cell

Spinal Cord

Somatic Motor Neuron

114
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Somatic Neurons

Spinal Cord