Seminal Fluid Analysis

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1

semen

composed of secretions from testes, epididymis, seminal vesicles, prostate, and bulbourethral glands

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testes

secrete testosterone and produce sperm regulated by FSH and LH from anterior pituitary gland

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Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules of testes

regulates sperm production

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germ cells

undergo meiosis to form spermatids which differentiate into sperm

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epididymis

location of maturation and storage of sperm

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vas deferens

pathway of sperm which leads to the urethra

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prostate, two seminal vesicles, and two bulbourethral glands

accessory glands which add fluids to sperm

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fructose, flavin, proteins, prostaglandins, citric acid, zinc, enzymes (proteolytic and acid phosphatase)

the various substances in semen

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several samples over 3-month period

fertility assessment collection

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2-7 days

period of abstinence before collection of each sample

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1 hour maintained between 20-40 C

sample delivery to laboratory

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room temperature or body temperature

temperature specimen maintained at

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gray-white and opalescent

normal color

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30 minutes

semen immediately coagulate and should liquify within

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60 minutes

delay of liquefaction that is considered abnormal

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2-5 mL

normal volume

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watery and forms discrete droplets

normal viscosity of semen after liquefaction

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motility

very important in order for sperm to reach and fertilize an egg

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50% or more

amount of sperm that should show moderate to strong linear or forward progression in normal semen evaluated within 60 minutes of collection

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0

grading of immotile sperm

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1

grading of motile, without forward progression sperm

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2

grading of motile, with slow nonlinear or meandering progression sperm

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3

grading of motile, with moderate linear forward progression sperm

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4

grading of motile, with strong linear (forward) progression

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20-250 million/mL

normal sperm concentration

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calibrated positive-displacement pipette

used to deliver semen quantitatively to a premeasured amount of diluent

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sperm count

determined by multiplying concentration per milliliter by volume of ejaculate

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0-12 weeks

time period in which postvasectomy sperm counts should be performed

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nonmotile

characteristic of sperm after successful vasectomy procedure

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sperm concentration (sperm/mL) x volume of ejaculate (mL)

sperm count calculation

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head, midpiece, and tail

three parts of sperm

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normal, head, midpiece, or tail defects, or cytoplasmic droplet presence

five categories of sperm classification

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cytoplasmic droplet

located in midpiece region and is abnormal if this region is more than one-third the area of a normal sperm head

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dead sperm take up stain

sperm vitality

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wright stain eosin

used to determine sperm vitality

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more than 1 million/mL

amount of WBCs indicating an inflammatory process

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agglutination

even a small amount is abnormal if sperm are alive

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7.2-7.8

normal pH

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below 7.2

pH indicating abnormality of epididymis, vas deferens, or seminal vesicles

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above 7.8

pH suggesting infection

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fructose

produced and secreted by seminal vesicles; most often measured when no sperm seen on count; normal level greater than or equal to 13micromol per ejaculate

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zinc and citric acid

evaluate prostate function

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acid phosphatase

used in rape and sexual assault investigations to identify semen in vaginal fluid