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1

tissue

Groups of cells (and the substance surrounding them) that usually arise from common ancestor cells and work together to perform a particular function comprise a _______________.

2

kidneys

Renal physiology is the study of the function of the _______________.

3

catabolism

The chemical reactions that break down large, complex molecules into smaller, simpler ones are referred to as _______________.

4

responsiveness

_______________ is the ability of an organism to detect and react to changes in the external or internal environment.

5

homeostasis

_______________ is a condition in which the body's internal environment remains within certain physiological limits.

6

stress

Any disturbance in homeostasis is referred to as _______________.

7

hormones

The chemicals produced by the endocrine system that help regulate homeostasis are called _______________.

8

effector

In a feedback loop, the control center provides output to and elicits a response from a(n) _______________.

9

decrease

The stimulus (stress) in a feedback loop is an increase in blood sugar. If this feedback loop is a negative feedback loop, then the effector will cause the blood sugar to _______________.

10

increase

The stimulus (stress) in a feedback loop is an increase in blood sugar. If this is positive feedback loop, then the effector will cause blood sugar to _______________.

11

ipsilateral

The anatomical term that means "on the same side of the body" is _______________.

12

pericardium

The serous membrane associated with the heart is the _______________.

13

anatomical

Description of any region of the body by means of directional terms and body planes assumes that the body is in _______________ position.

14

inferior

The anatomical term that means "away from the head or toward the lower part of a structure" is _______________.

15

endocrine

The _______________ system is composed of a series of glands that secrete hormones.

16

effector

A feedback system consists of three basic components: a control center, a receptor, and a(n) _______________.

17

organelles

Specialized structures within a cell that function in the overall cell's anatomy and physiology are known as _______________.

18

anatomy

The study of structure and the relationships between structures is _______________.

19

physiology

The study of the function of body parts is _______________.

20

cell

The basic structural and functional unit of an organism is the _______________.

21

organs

_______________ are structures that are composed of two or more different tissues, have specific functions, and usually have recognizable shapes.

22

system

The level of structural organization of the body consisting of several related organs that have a common function is the _______________.

23

cytology

The microscopic study of the structure of cells is _______________.

24

histology

The microscopic study of the structure of tissues is _______________.

25

sagittal section

A plane or section that divides an organ such that you would be looking at a medial surface of a section of that organ would be a _______________.

26

nervous

Homeostasis is regulated by the endocrine system and the _______________ system.

27

receptor

The component of a feedback loop that senses changes in the environment and notifies the control center of the changes is called the _______________.

28

distal

The wrist is _______________ to the elbow.

29

inferior

The intestines are _______________ to the heart.

30

deep

The muscles are _______________ to the skin.

31

sodium

The most plentiful extracellular cation is _______________.

32

matter

Anything living or nonliving that occupies space and has mass is known as _______________.

33

isotopes

Different atoms of an element that have the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called _______________.

34

compound

A substance that can be chemically broken down into two or more different elements is a _______________.

35

peptide bond

The covalent bond that forms between a pair of amino acids is called a _______________.

36

catalysts

Substances that can speed up chemical reactions without being altered themselves are known as _______________.

37

adenine and guanine

The two purines found in DNA nucleotides are _______________.

38

amino acids

The complete hydrolysis of proteins would yield _______________.

39

DNA

The term double helix describes the structure of _______________.

40

phospholipids

The major lipid component of cell membranes is _______________.

41

steroids

Cholesterol, bile salts, and sex hormones are all examples of a class of lipids known as _______________.

42

7.45

Homeostatic mechanisms maintain the pH of blood between 7.35 and _______________.

43

reduced

A molecule that gains hydrogen atoms during chemical reactions in the body is said to be _______________.

44

activation energy

The collision energy needed for a chemical reaction to occur is called the _______________.

45

temperature

The two factors that most influence the chance that a collision will occur between atoms are the concentration and the _______________.

46

cation

A positively charged ion is called a _______________.

47

water

The most abundant inorganic compound in the human body is _______________.

48

covalent

Organic compounds are held together mostly or entirely by _______________ bonds.

49

solute

In a solution, the substance that is dissolved is the _______________.

50

dehydration synthesis

In the formation of macromolecules, monomers are joined together by a reaction called a _______________, which involves the elimination of a water molecule from the reactants.

51

hydrolysis

Macromolecules are broken down into monomers by the addition of water in a reaction known as _______________.

52

carbohydrates

Sugars and starches are examples of _______________.

53

energy

The principal function of carbohydrates is to provide _______________.

54

water-fearing

Lipids are said to be hydrophobic, which means that they are _______________.

55

glycerol

Triglycerides are made up of fatty acids and _______________.

56

polyunsaturated

Fats whose fatty acids contain multiple double bonds between their carbon atoms are said to be _______________.

57

eicosanoids

Prostaglandins and leukotrienes are examples of a class of lipids known as _______________.

58

enzymes

Catalytic proteins are called _______________.

59

tertiary

The biological function of a protein is determined by its _______________ structure.

60

turnover number

The number of substrate molecules converted to product per enzyme molecule in one second is called the _______________.

61

hypertonic

If Solution A has more solutes and less water than Solution B, then Solution A is considered to be _______________ to Solution B.

62

gene

A group of nucleotides on a DNA molecule whose purpose is to serve as the "directions" for manufacturing a specific protein is a _______________.

63

mitosis

Distribution of two sets of chromosomes into two separate and equal nuclei is known as _______________.

64

cleavage furrow

Cytokinesis begins with formation of a _______________.

65

fertilization

The union and fusion of gametes is called _______________.

66

homologous

In a diploid cell, the two chromosomes that belong to a pair are called _______________ chromosomes.

67

meiosis

Chromosome number does not double with each generation of cell division because of a special nuclear division called _______________.

68

spermatogenesis

The process of formation of haploid sperm cells in the male testes is known as _______________.

69

oogenesis

The process of formation of haploid ova in the female ovaries is known as _______________.

70

synapsis

The homologous pairing of chromosomes in prophase I of meiosis is known as _______________.

71

polar bodies

The haploid cells in the female that do not function as gametes are known as _______________.

72

cell plasma membrane

The fluid mosaic model describes the structure of the _______________.

73

inclusions

Temporary structures in the cytoplasm that contain secretions and storage products of the cell are known as _______________.

74

hydrophilic head

The part of a phospholipid molecule that lines up facing the intracellular and extracellular fluids is the _______________.

75

membrane potential

As a result of the electrochemical gradient across the cell membrane, a voltage called the _______________ exists.

76

selective permeability

The property of a cell membrane that permits passage of certain substances and restricts passage of others is known as _______________.

77

equilibrium

If two solutions have different concentrations and they are separated by a membrane that is permeable to the solute, then there will be net movement of solute molecules until _______________ is reached.

78

osmosis

The net movement of water across a selectively membrane by passive means is known as _______________.

79

isotonic

There is no net movement of water molecules across a membrane separating solutions that are _______________ to each other.

80

crenation

Red blood cells with in intracellular concentration of 0.9% NaCl will undergo _______________ when they are placed in a solution of 5% NaCl.

81

facilitated diffusion

A type of passive transport across a cell membrane that requires special transporters (carriers) is _______________.

82

pinocytosis

Droplets of extracellular fluid flow into vesicles during the process of _______________.

83

exocytosis

Export of substance from the cell in which vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents into the extracellular fluid is known as _______________.

84

colloids

Large organic compounds, such as proteins and glycogen, that remain suspended in the cytoplasm, rather than dissolved, are known as _______________.

85

histones

The proteins around which DNA wraps in a chromatin fiber are called _______________.

86

lysosomes

Organelles that are membrane-enclosed vesicles filled with digestive enzymes are _______________.

87

cytoskeleton

Microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments comprise the _______________.

88

introns

Regions within DNA strands that do not code for synthesis of part of a protein are called _______________.

89

codons

Each set of three consecutive nucleotide bases on messenger RNA that specifies one amino acid is called a _______________.

90

cytokinesis

Division of a parent cell's cytoplasm and organelles is called _______________.

91

protection

The primary function of stratified squamous epithelium is _______________.

92

endothelium

Simple squamous epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and forms the walls of capillaries is known as _______________.

93

Exocrine

_______________ glands secrete their products into ducts.

94

cartilage

A connective tissue that is avascular is _______________.

95

hormones

The secretions from endocrine glands are called _______________.

96

fetus

Mucous connective tissue is found primarily in the _______________.

97

chondrocytes

The cells of mature cartilage are called _______________.

98

hyaline cartilage

The most abundant type of cartilage in the human body is _______________.

99

Appositional

_______________ growth of cartilage continues throughout life.

100

lamina propria

The connective tissue layer of a mucous membrane is called the _______________.

101

serous membrane

The type of membrane that lines a body cavity that does not open to the exterior is a _______________.

102

peritoneum

The serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity and covering the abdominal organs is called the _______________.

103

Axons

_______________ conduct nerve impulses away from the cell bodies of neurons.

104

mast cell

The type of cell in areolar connective tissue that produces histamine and heparin is the _______________.

105

osseous tissue

The type of tissue whose matrix normally contains large amounts of calcium salts is _______________.

106

microvilli

The surface area of the apical surfaces of epithelial cell membranes is increased by the presence of _______________.

107

mucus

Goblet cells produce _______________.

108

hyaline

The "gristle" covering the ends of bones at joints is _______________ cartilage.

109

fibrocartilage

Intervertrbral discs and the menisci of the knees are made of _______________.

110

gap junctions

Electrical or chemical signals can pass from cell to cell via connections known as _______________.

111

pseudostratified epithelium

The type of epithelium in which the cells may or may not reach the surface, and whose nuclei may lie at different levels giving the appearance of multiple layers is _______________.

112

stratified squamous

Keratin may be present in _______________ epithelium.

113

holocrine

Glands in which secretory cells die as their product is discharged are _______________ glands.

114

-blast

The immature cells of each major type of connective tissue have names that end in the suffix _______________.

115

ground substance

The fibers of the connective tissue matrix are embedded in the amorphous _______________.

116

stroma

The reticular connective tissue that forms the supporting framework for many soft organs is known as the _______________.

117

osteon

The basic unit of compact bone is the _______________.

118

skeletal muscle tissue

A type of tissue that is described as being striated and voluntary is _______________.

119

smooth muscle tissue

Propulsion of food through the gastrointestinal tract and contraction of the urinary bladder are functions of _______________.

120

neurons

Cells that are the structural and functional units of the nervous system are called _______________.

121

D

Individuals who do not get enough exposure to sunlight or who do not consume enough fortified milk may develop a deficiency of vitamin _______________.

122

melanin

The red-brown-black pigment in skin that absorbs UV light is _______________.

123

tyrosinase

Most people who have albinism possess melanocytes, but lack the enzyme _______________.

124

reticular region

The deeper region of the dermis is the _______________.

125

apocrine sweat glands

Sweat glands found primarily in the skin of the axillae, pubic region, and areolae of the nipples are the _______________.

126

malignant melanoma

The most prevalent life-threatening cancer in young women is _______________.

127

stratum basale

The single layer of continually reproducing cells in the epidermis is called the _______________.

128

stratum corneum

The most superficial layer of cells in the epidermis is called the _______________.

129

keratin

The protein in the outer layer of the epidermis that provides protection against mechanical injury, bacterial invasion, and dehydration is _______________.

130

papillary region of the dermis

The region of the skin that is just deep to the stratum basale of the epidermis and that contains loops of capillaries is the _______________.

131

subcutaneous layer

The reticular region of the dermis is attached to underlying organs by the _______________.

132

lamellated corpuscles

The subcutaneous layer contains pressure-sensitive nerve endings known as _______________.

133

albinism

Inability to synthesize the enzyme tyrosinase results in a condition known as _______________.

134

jaundice

A yellowed appearance of skin and the whites of the eyes due to buildup of bilirubin resulting from liver disease is called _______________.

135

erythema

Redness of the skin due to increased blood flow in known as _______________.

136

dermal papillae

Epidermal ridges conform to the contours of the underlying _______________.

137

epidermis

Hair, nails, and skin glands develop from the embryonic _______________.

138

sex hormones

The adult pattern of hair grown is determined by _______________.

139

sudoriferous glands

Mammary glands and ceruminous glands are modified _______________.

140

sebum

Blackheads develop from chemical oxidation of accumulated _______________.

141

sweat

The secretion from skin that plays a small role in the elimination of wastes is _______________.

142

contact inhibition

The characteristic of epidermal cells that causes them to stop migrating during wound healing once they are touching other epidermal cells on all sides is called _______________.

143

fibrosis

The process of scar tissue formation is called _______________.

144

constrict

When body temperature begins to fall, to prevent further heat loss blood vessels in the skin will _______________.

145

sudoriferous glands; blood vessels

In the negative feedback loop in which the integumentary system helps regulate body temperature, the effectors are the _______________ and the _______________.

146

Langerhans cells

Cells in the epidermis that work with helper T cells to provide immunity are the _______________.

147

inflammatory

Formation of a blood clot, vasodilation of blood vessels, and increased permeability of blood vessels for delivery of phagocytes and mesenchyme cells is characteristic of the _______________ phase of deep wound healing.

148

migratory

Filling of a wound with granulation tissue is characteristic of the _______________ phase of deep would healing.

149

eccrine sweat gland

The more common type of sweat gland is the _______________.

150

stratified squamous epithelium

The type of tissue that forms the epidermis is _______________.

151

osteology

The study of bone structure and treatment of bone disorders is known as _______________.

152

osteogenic

The inner layer of the periosteum is called the _______________ layer.

153

endosteum

The membrane that lines the medullary cavity of a long bone is called the _______________.

154

osteocytes

Mature bone cells that are completely surrounded by matrix are called _______________.

155

collagen

Bones are less brittle than other calcium-based products, such as oyster shells and egg shells, because they contain more of the protein _______________.

156

canaliculi

The channels in osteons that connect lacunae with central canals are called _______________.

157

interstitial

Areas between osteons are filled in with _______________ lamellae.

158

periosteum

In intramembranous ossification, the highly vascularized mesenchyme on the outside of the new bone develops into the _______________.

159

adipose cells

Yellow bone marrow consists primarily of _______________.

160

articular cartilage

The part of a long bone that is not covered by periosteum is covered by _______________.

161

osteoclasts

Cells whose primary function is bone resorption are the _______________.

162

mineral salts

About 50% of bone matrix consists of _______________.

163

compact

The external layer of all bones and the bulk of the diaphyses of long bones is made up of _______________ bone.

164

central canals

Blood vessels run longitudinally through compact bone in _______________.

165

trabeculae

Thin plates of bone in spongy bone are called _______________.

166

nutrient

The artery to the diaphysis of a long bone is called the _______________ artery.

167

intramembranous

The flat bonds of the skull form by _______________ ossification.

168

hyaline cartilage

In endochondral ossification, the embryonic pattern for the bone is made of _______________.

169

chondroblasts

Cells responsible for cartilage formation are called _______________.

170

diaphysis

During endochondral ossification of a long bone, the primary ossification center forms in the _______________.

171

epiphyseal plate

A long bone increases in length due to the activity of cartilage cells at the _______________.

172

anterior pituitary gland

Human growth hormone is produced by the _______________.

173

mechanical stress

Bone constantly remodels and redistributes matrix along lines of _______________.

174

insulin-like growth hormones

Hormones that are produced locally by bone and also by the liver that stimulate the uptake of amino acids and promote proteins synthesis are _______________.

175

parathyroid hormone

Levels of calcium ions in the blood are increased by the effects of the hormone _______________.

176

fracture hematoma

The blood clot that forms in and around the site of a bone fracture is called a _______________.

177

comminuted

A fracture in which the bone has splintered at the site of impact, leaving smaller fragments between the two main fragments is called a _______________ fracture.

178

gene for PTH within the parathyroid gland

In the negative feedback loop that controls the release of parathyroid hormone, the control center is the _______________.

179

calcitonin

A hormone that inhibits the activity of osteoclasts and promotes deposition of calcium ions into bones is _______________.

180

osteomyelitis

Inflammation of the bone marrow, caused by a pathogenic microorganism, is called _______________.

181

sphenoid

The optic foramina are found in the _______________ bone.

182

manubrium

The superior portion of the sternum is called the _______________.

183

80, 126

There are _______________ bones in the axial division of the skeleton system, and _______________ bones in the appendicular division

184

suture

An immovable joint found only between skull bones is called a _______________.

185

sagittal

The suture located between the two parietal bones is the _______________ suture.

186

lambdoid

The suture located between the parietal bones and the occipital bone is the _______________ suture.

187

palatine plate; horizontal plate

The hard palate is formed by the _______________ of the maxillae and the _______________ of the palatine bones.

188

alveoli

The tooth sockets are called _______________.

189

atlas

The first cervical vertebra is called the _______________.

190

intervertebral foramina

Spinal nerves pass through openings between the vertebrae called _______________.

191

dens; axis

The atlas and head rotate around the _______________ of the _______________.

192

heads of the ribs

The facets and demifacets on the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae are sites of articulation with the _______________.

193

manubrium; body of sternum

The sternal angle is formed by the junction of the _______________ and the _______________.

194

vertebrochondral

Ribs that attach anteriorly to the cartilage of other ribs are reffered to as false ribs, or _______________ ribs.

195

nucleus pulposus

An intervertebral disc consists of the outer fibrous and the inner elastic structure called the _______________.

196

cervical

When an infant begins to hold its head up, its vertebral column begins to develop a _______________ curve.

197

petrous portion

The structures involved in hearing and equilibrium are housed in the _______________ of the temporal bone.

198

occipital

The foramen magnum is a large hole in the _______________ bone.

199

pituitary

The sella turcica of the sphenoid bone provides protection for the _______________ gland.

200

cribiform plate

The olfactory foramina are located in the _______________ of the ethmoid bone.

201

nasal bones

The bony part of the bridge of the nose is formed by the _______________.

202

mandible; maxillae

Alveolar processes are seen on two facial bones, the _______________ and the _______________.

203

mental

Two foramina in the mandible that are important sites for injection of dental anesthetics are the mandibular foramen and the _______________ foramen.

204

vomer

A triangular bone that forms the inferior and posterior part of the nasal septum is the _______________.

205

hyoid

A bone located between the mandible and the larynx is the _______________ bone.

206

7; 12; 5; 5; 4

The adult vertebral column consists of _______________ cervical vertebrae, _______________ thoracic vertebrae, _______________ lumbar vertebrae, _______________ sacral vertebrae fused into one, and _______________ coccygeal vertebrae fused into one or two bones.

207

thoracic; sacral

The anteriorly concave curves of the vertebral column are the _______________ and the _______________.

208

pedicles

The two short, thick processes between the body and the laminae of a vertebra are the _______________

209

cervical

The largest vertebral foramina are found in the vertebrae of the _______________ region.

210

lordosis

An increase in abdominal weight may cause an exaggeration of the lumbar curvature of the spine known as swayback, or _______________.

211

amphiarthrosis

The functional classification of joints defined as slightly movable is the _______________.

212

suture

A fibrous joint uniting the bones of the skull is a _______________.

213

flexion

The angle between articulating bones is decreased by a movement called _______________.

214

abduction

A bone moves away from the body's midline during _______________.

215

rheumatism

Any painful state of the body's supporting structures is known as _______________.

216

osteoarthritis

A degenerative joint disease that results from the combined effects of aging, irritation of joints, wear and abrasion, is _______________.

217

sprain

The forcible wrenching or twisting of a joint without dislocation is called a _______________.

218

subluxation

A partial or incomplete dislocation is called a _______________.

219

kinesiology

The study of motion of the human body is called _______________.

220

synostosis

When an epiphyseal plate closes it is transformed from a synchondrosis into a(n) _______________.

221

fibrocartilage

In a symphysis, the articulating bones are joined by _______________.

222

fibrous

A syndesmosis would be classified structurally as a _______________ joint.

223

synovial fluid

The function of the inner lining of the articular capsule is to produce _______________.

224

ligament

Fibrous connective tissue that connects one bone to another in a joint capsule is called a _______________.

225

synovial fluid

Nutrients are supplied to the chondrocytes of the articular cartilage by _______________.

226

bursae

Fluid-filled sacs located between bones and overlying tissues that help alleviate pressure are called _______________.

227

articular discs

Fibrocartilage pads that extend from the fibrous capsule into the joint cavity between articulating bones in large synovial joints are called _______________.

228

articular disc

Someone who has a "torn cartilage" in the knee has damaged a(n) _______________.

229

hinge

The elbow is an example of a(n) _______________ joint.

230

gliding

The articulation of the clavicle and the acromion process of the scapula is an example of a(n) _______________ joint.

231

circumduction

The combined movements of flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction is called _______________.

232

opposition

The movement of the thumb so that the tip of the thumb can meet the tip of any other digits on the same hand is referred to as _______________.

233

saddle

The joint between the trapezium and the metacarpal of the thumb is an example of a _______________ joint.

234

ball-and-socket

The glenohumeral joint and the coxal joint are the only examples of the _______________ joint.

235

gomphosis

The periodontal membrane separates the articulating bones of a _______________.

236

diarthrosis

A freely movable joint is called a _______________.

237

eversion

Bending the soles of the feet outward (laterally) so that the soles face away from each other is called _______________.

238

glenoid labrum

The narrow rim of fibrocartilage around the glenoid cavity is called the _______________.

239

patellar retinacula

The anterior surface of the knee is strengthened by the fused tendons of the quadriceps femoris muscle and the fascia lata, known as the _______________.

240

anterior cruciate ligament

The ligament stretched or torn in 70% of all serious knee injuries is the _______________.

241

smooth muscle tissue

Muscle tissue that is both non-striated and involuntary is _______________.

242

excitability

The ability of muscle tissue to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals (action potentials) is called _______________.

243

elasticity

The ability of muscle tissue to return to its original shape after contracting or stretching is called _______________.

244

deep fascia

The dense irregular connective tissue that carries nerves and blood vessels, fills the spaces between muscles, and separates muscles into functional groups is the _______________.

245

aponeurosis

A broad, flat tendon that connects muscle to bone, muscle, or skin is called a(n) _______________.

246

motor end plate

The region of a sarcolemma adjacent to the axon terminals at a neuromuscular junction is called the _______________.

247

sarcolemma

Acetylcholine receptors are located on the _______________.

248

H zone

The region of the sarcomere that contains only thick myofilaments is the _______________.

249

I band

The region of the sarcomere that contains only thin myofilaments is the _______________.

250

elastic filaments

The thick myofilaments are anchored to the Z discs and stabilized during contraction and relaxation by _______________.

251

transverse tubule

A triad consists of two terminal cisterns and a(n) _______________.

252

calcium ions

Myosin binding sites on actin are exposed when troponin changes shape as a result of binding _______________.

253

power stroke

The shape change (swiveling) that occurs as myosin heads bind to actin produces the _______________ of contraction.

254

isometric

Muscle contraction without muscle shortening is called a(n) _______________ contraction.

255

latent

The time between the application of a stimulus and the beginning of contraction, when calcium ions are being released from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, is called the _______________ period.

256

refractory

The time following a stimulus during which a muscle cell is unable to respond to another stimulus is called the _______________ period.

257

complete tetanus

A sustained contraction with no relaxation between stimuli is called _______________.

258

treppe

In a well-relaxed muscle, several identical stimuli administered in quick succession, but allowing complete relaxation between stimuli, will result in a phenomenon known as _______________.

259

muscle tone

Involuntary activation of a small number of motor units causes sustained, small contractions that give relaxed skeletal muscle a firmness known as _______________.

260

flaccid

Muscles that exhibit hypotonia are said to be _______________.

261

passive

Tension generated by tendons, elastic filaments, and connective tissues surrounding muscle fibers is called _______________ tension.

262

concentric

An isotonic contraction in which the muscle shortens to produce movement and to reduce the angle at a joint is called a(n) _______________ contraction.

263

eccentric

An isotonic contraction in which the muscle lengthens to produce movement and to increase the angle at a joint is called a(n) _______________ contraction.

264

atrophy

The wasting away of muscles due to progressive loss of myofibrils is called _______________.

265

creatine

In the phosphagen system, high-energy phosphate groups can be stored for future ATP production by combining with _______________.

266

pyruvic acid; two

During anaerobic glycolysis, glucose is broken down into two molecules of _______________, resulting in a net gain of _______________ molecules of ATP.

267

oxygen

The reactions of cellular respiration occurring in the mitochondria are said to be aerobic because they require _______________.

268

aerobic cellular respiration

During long-term exercise, most ATP is produced as a result of _______________.

269

intercalated disc

Each cardiac muscle fiber in a network is connected to its neighbors by an irregular transverse thickening of the sarcolemma known as a(n) _______________.

270

myosin light chain kinase

In smooth muscle, myosin binds to actin only after the myosin head has been phosphorylated via the action of the enzyme _______________.

271

sustentacular

The blood-testis barrier is formed just internal to the basement membrane of the seminiferous tubule by tight junctions between _______________ cells.

272

interstitial endocrinocytes

The cells in the seminiferous tubule that secrete testosterone are the _______________.

273

meiosis

The process of cell division in which diploid cells are converted to haploid gametes is called _______________.

274

four

Division of each primary spermatocyte eventually produces _______________ spermatids.

275

GnRH

Release of LH and FSH is regulated by the hormone _______________ produced by the hypothalamus.

276

inhibin

A hormone secreted by sustentacular cells that targets the anterior pituitary to inhibit secretion of FSH is _______________.

277

epididymis

A tightly coiled tube, 6m X 1mm, that lies along the posterior border of the testis is the _______________.

278

spermatic cord

The testicular artery, veins, autonomic nerves, lymphatic vessels, and the cremaster muscle together constitute the _______________.

279

prostate gland

An accessory gland lying inferior to the urinary bladder and surrounding the urethra in the male is the _______________.

280

2.5-5 ml; 50-150 million

The average volume of semen in an ejaculation is _______________ with sperm count of _______________ per milliliter.

281

seminalplasmin

An antibiotic present in semen is _______________.

282

corpora cavernosa; corpora spongiosum

The paired dorsolateral masses of erectile tissue of the penis are called the _______________; the smaller midventral mass is called the _______________.

283

parasympathetic

The vascular changes resulting in an erection are the result of a _______________ reflex.

284

prepuce

Covering the glans of an uncircumcised penis is the foreskin, also known as the _______________.

285

ejaculatory duct

The _______________ is formed by the union of the duct from the seminal vesicle and the ductus deferens.

286

tunica albuginea

The white capsule of dense, irregular connective tissue that is immediately deep to the germinal epithelium of the ovary is called the _______________.

287

oogonia

During early female fetal development, primordial germ cells migrate from the endoderm of the yolk sac to the ovaries, where they differentiate into _______________.

288

atresia

Degeneration of primary germ cells during female fetal development is called _______________.

289

fimbriae

Finger-like projections of the infundibulum of the uterine tubes are called _______________.

290

cervix

The inferior narrow portion of the uterus that opens into the vagina is called the _______________.

291

stratum functionalis

The layer of the endometrium nearest the uterine cavity that is shed during menstruation is the _______________.

292

uterus

A hysterectomy is surgical removal of the _______________.

293

clitoris

The female structure that is homologous to the penis of the male is the _______________.

294

secondary oocyte

The form (stage) of the egg that is ovulated is the _______________.

295

progesterone

During the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium is prepared to receive a fertilized ovum principally by the hormone _______________ produced by the corpus luteum.

296

nonoxynol-9

One of the most widely used spermicides in contraceptive creams, foams, sponges, etc., is _______________.

297

menarche; menopause

Onset of the first menses is called _______________; permanent cessation of menses as part of the aging process is called _______________.

298

SRY

The male pattern of differentiation of primitive gonads in the embryo depends on the presence of a master gene on the Y chromosome called _______________.

299

syphilis

A chancre at the point of contact is the symptom of the primary stage of the sexually transmitted disease _______________.

300

salpingitis

Infection of the uterine tubes is called _______________.

301

Capacitation

_______________ is the term for the functional changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract that allow them to fertilize a secondary oocyte.

302

zona pellucida

The glycoprotein layer internal to the corona radiata surrounding the oocyte is called the _______________.

303

zygote

The fertilized ovum is called a(n) _______________.

304

ectopic pregnancy

The development of an embryo or fetus outside the uterine cavity is called a(n) _______________.

305

uterine tube

The part of the female reproductive tract in which fertilization normally occurs is the _______________.

306

morula

By the end of the third day after fertilization, the fertilized egg has become a solid ball of cells called the _______________.

307

blastocyst

The hollow ball of cells that is implanted into the uterine wall is called the _______________.

308

embryo

During the first two months of development, the developing human is called a(n) _______________.

309

ectoderm; endoderm; mesoderm

The primary germ layers are the _______________, the _______________, and the _______________.

310

gastrulation

The process by which the two-layered inner cell mass is converted into a structure composed of the primary germ layers is called _______________.

311

yolk sac

The fetal membrane that serves as an early site of blood formation and that is the source of the cells that differentiate into primitive germ cells is the _______________.

312

chorion

The structure derived from the trophoblast of the blastocyst that becomes the principal embryonic part of the placenta is the _______________.

313

third

Development of the placenta is accomplished by the _______________ month of pregnancy.

314

decidua

The portion of the endometrium that becomes modified following implantation is known as the _______________.

315

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

The chorion of the placenta secretes the hormone _______________, which mimics the action of LH.

316

gestation; 38

The time a developing human is carried in the female reproductive tract between fertilization and birth is called _______________, which is normally about _______________ weeks.

317

preeclampsia

A condition that appears after the 20th week of gestation in which hypertension results from impaired renal function is called _______________.

318

prolactin

The principal hormone promoting lactation is _______________.

319

colostrum

The initial low-lactose, low-fat fluid produced by the mammary glands during late pregnancy and for the first few days following delivery is called _______________.

320

genome

The complete genetic makeup of an organism is called the _______________.

321

alleles; homozygous; heterozygous

The two alternative forms of a gene that code for the same trait and are at the same locus on homologous chromosomes are called _______________; and individual in whom the two forms are the same is said to be _______________, while an individual in whom the two forms are different is said to be _______________.

322

phenotype

The physical or outward expression of a gene is called the _______________.

323

nondisjunction

An error in meiosis called _______________ occurs when homologous chromosomes fail to separate properly during anaphase of the reduction division.

324

22; one

A diploid human cell contains _______________ pair(s) of autosomes and _______________ pair(s) of sex chromosomes.

325

sex-linked

Traits inherited on the X and/or Y chromosomes are referred to as _______________ traits.

326

Barr body

The dark-staining inactivated X chromosome seen in the nuclei of female mammalian cell is called a _______________.

327

Down syndrome

Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 results in _______________.

328

human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)

The hormone that serves as a basis for early pregnancy tests is _______________.

329

trophoblast; inner cell mass; blastocoel

The blastocyst has three portions - the outer _______________, the _______________, and the internal, fluid-filled cavity called the _______________.

330

inner cell mass

The embryo develops from the layer of the blastocyst called the _______________.

331

villi

Projections of the mucosa of the small intestine that increase surface area for absorption and digestion are called _______________.

332

acini; pancreatic islets

The exocrine cells of the pancreas are arranged in clusters called _______________; the endocrine cells of the pancreas are organized into clusters called _______________.

333

common hepatic duct; cystic duct

The common bile duct is formed by the union of the _______________ and the _______________.

334

liver

Bile is produced by the _______________.

335

phagocytosis

The function of the stellate reticuloendothelial cells of the liver is _______________.

336

cholecystokinin

The hormone that stimulates ejection of bile from the gallbladder is _______________.

337

pylorus; duodenum

Partially digested food passes from the _______________ region of the stomach into the _______________ region of the small intestine.

338

emulsification

The process by which bile salts break triglycerides into one millimeter droplets is called _______________.

339

pancreas

Trypsin and chymotrypsin are enzymes produced by the _______________.

340

starch

The substrate for salivary amylase is _______________.

341

protein

The substrate for trypsin is _______________.

342

sucrose; glucose; fructose

The substrate for sucrase is _______________, which is hydrolyzed into _______________ and _______________.

343

rectum

The last 20cm of the large intestine is called the _______________.

344

taeniae coli

The prominent bands of smooth muscle running longitudinally along the large intestine are the _______________.

345

mass peristalsis

The contents of the colon are moved quickly from the transverse colon into the rectum by a movement called _______________.

346

lamina propria

The layer of areolar connective underlying the epithelium of the mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract is called the _______________.

347

ascites

Accumulation of serous fluid in the peritoneal cavity is called _______________.

348

greater omentum

The largest of the peritoneal folds that drapes over the transverse colon and small intestine is the _______________.

349

parotid glands

The salivary glands located inferior and anterior to the ears between the skin and masseter muscle are the _______________.

350

dentin

Teeth are composed primarily of a calcified connective tissue called _______________.

351

deglutition

The act of swallowing is also called _______________.

352

hiatal hernia

The condition in which stomach protrudes above the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus is known as a(n) _______________.

353

pepsinogen

Chief cells of the stomach produce _______________.

354

gastrin

G cells of the stomach secrete _______________.

355

rugae

Folds in the gastric mucosa are called _______________.

356

hepatopancreatic ampulla

The pancreatic duct and the common bile duct unite to form the _______________.

357

enterokinase

Trypsinogen is converted to trypsin by the action of the enzyme _______________.

358

bile canaliculi

The right and left hepatic ducts are formed by the merging of smaller ducts called _______________.

359

microvilli

The microscopic, finger-like projections of the apical membranes of absorptive cells in the small intestine are called _______________.

360

jaundice

A yellowish coloration of the sclerae and mucous membranes due to the buildup of bilirubin is called _______________.

361

hypothalamus

The feeding and satiety center are located in the _______________.

362

metabolism

The term that refers to all the chemical reactions in the body is _______________.

363

catabolism; anabolism

Those chemical reactions that break down molecules and release energy are collectively known as _______________. Those that synthesize larger molecules from smaller ones are collectively known as _______________.

364

basal metabolic rate

The rate at which the resting, fasting body breaks down nutrients to liberate energy is called the _______________.

365

radiation

Transfer of heat between objects without physical contact is called _______________.

366

conduction

Transfer of heat between solid objects in contact with each other is called _______________.

367

pyrogen

A fever-production substance is called a _______________.

368

specific dynamic action

The effect of ingested food on metabolic rate is called _______________.

369

hypothermia

The lowering of body temperature below thirty-five degrees centigrade is called _______________.

370

substrate-level

Formation of ATP by transfer of a high-energy phosphate group from an intermediate phosphorylated compound to ADP is called _______________ phosphorylation.

371

oxidative

Formation of ATP via energy released during the reactions of the electron transport chain is called _______________ phosphorylation.

372

cellular respiration

The oxidation of glucose by cells is also called _______________.

373

pyruvic acid

Glycolysis is the oxidation of glucose to _______________.

374

decarboxylation

Loss of a molecule of carbon dioxide by a substance is called _______________.

375

oxaloacetic acid; citric acid

When acetyl CoA enters the Krebs cycle, the acetyl unit combines with _______________ to form _______________.

376

GTP

During the Krebs cycle, two molecules of _______________ are generated by subrate-level phosphorylation.

377

chemiosmosis

The linking of ATP generation with the pumping of hydrogen ions across the inner and outer mitochondrial membranes is called _______________.

378

cytochromes

Iron-containing proteins involved in the reactions of the electron transport chain are called _______________.

379

carbon dioxide; water

The complete aerobic oxidation of glucose yields _______________ and _______________.

380

38

The theoretical maximum number of ATP molecules produced as a result of the aerobic respiration of one glucose molecule is _______________.

381

liver; skeletal muscle tissue

Glycogen is stored in the _______________ and the _______________.

382

gluconeogenesis

The process by which new glucose is formed from non-carbohydrate sources is called _______________.

383

beta oxidation

The process by which fatty acids are catabolized to two-carbon fragments is called _______________.

384

ketone bodies

Acetone, acetoacetic acid, and beta-hydroxybutyric acid are collectively known as _______________.

385

insulin

Lipogenesis is stimulated by the hormone _______________.

386

ammonia; urea

During the deamination of proteins, an amino group is removed and converted to _______________, which is then converted to _______________ by the liver.

387

70-110 mg

During the postabsorptive state, blood glucose levels are normally maintained at _______________ per 100 ml.

388

cortisol

The breakdown of proteins, particularly in skeletal muscle fibers, is stimulated primarily by the hormone _______________.

389

calcium ion

The most abundant cation in the body is _______________.

390

vitamin A

The vitamin that is essential for the formation of photopigments is _______________.