History - Ch. 6 - A Glory by the Sea: Classical Greece pp. 133-144

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1

pedagogues
[Gk: paidos; agogos – child; leader]

servants that made sure boys behaved in school

2

stylus

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a pointed writing instrument used to scratch letters

3

abacus

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wooden frame with beads used to teach math

4

lyre
[lahyuh r]

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small harp

5

aulos
[aw-los]

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a type of flute

6

athlete
(Gk: athlētēs)

someone who participates in sports

7

philosopher
(Gk: philo; sophia)

lover of wisdom

8

dialogues
(Gk: dia; legein – across; speak)

book written in the form of conversations

9

scientific method

a method of study requiring careful observation and record keeping

10

lever

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What is this?

11

pulley

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What is this?

12

theorem

a carefully tested idea

13

amphitheater
(Gk: amphi; theātron – both sides; seeing place)

an outdoor theater

14

comedy

a play meant to make the audience laugh and put them in a lighthearted mood

15

tragedy

a play meant to make the audience think; ended in the downfall of a hero because a character flaw

16

Apollo

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the Greek god of music

17

Muses

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nine goddess that presided over the arts

18

Homer

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a poet that wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey

19

Socrates
[sok-ruh-teez]

philosopher, taught his students by asking questions that made them think; he believed that right thinking led to right actions

20

Plato
[pley-toh]

philosopher; Socrates’ pupil; wrote dialoges; believed that the spiritual world (a world of the mind and of ideas) was superior to the physical world

21

Aristotle\
[ar-uh-stot-l]

Plato’s pupil; science was the most important academic subject; is credited for the scientific method; taught that reason controls behavior

22

Archimedes
ahr-kuh-mee-deez]

a mathematician who perfected the lever and compound pulley

23

Euclid

[yoo-klid] – wrote the first geometry book

24

Pythagoras
[pi-thag-er-uh s]

mathematician, studied geometry, developed a theorem about triangles; Pythagorean Theorem

25

Pythagorean Theorem

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a2 + b2 = c2

26

Eratosthenes
[er-uh-tos-thuh-neez]

the first to draw the latitude and longitude lines on a map; calculated the circumference of the earth

27

Aristarchus
[ar-uh-stahr-kuh s]

suggested that the sun not the earth is the center of the universe

28

Hippocrates
[hi-pok-ruh-teez]

Father of Medicine

29

Herodotus
[huh-rod-uh-tuh s]

Father of History

30

latitude and longitude lines

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31

T/F: The Greeks believed that music was the greatest of all the arts.

True

32

T/F: The Greeks were the first to hold the Olympic games.

True

33

T/F: The Olympic games were held in Olympia.

True

34

T/F: The winners of the Olympic games were given a garland of olive leaves to wear on their heads as a crown.

True

35

T/F: Much of what we know about the Greeks comes from their art.

True

36

T/F: Greeks actors used exaggerated costumes and larges masks for their acting.

True

37

T/F: Greek masks had small mouth pieces that acted like megaphones.

True

38

What was the Peloponnesian War?

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The Peloponnesian War lasted from 431-404 B.C. 27 years.
During the Persian Wars some the city states allied with Athens against the Persians.
Sparta and its allies saw this alliance as a threat.
Sparta won the war but could not rule the quarreling democratic city states.

39

Who was Philip II of Macedonia?

In 338 B.C., Philip II of Macedonia took control of the weakened government.

40
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Alexander the Great

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When Philip died, his son Alexander took the throne; tutored by Aristotle; commanded the army at age twenty; extended his rule as far as India; spread the Greek culture, philosophy, inventions, teachings, and art where he conquered

41

What happened the Greek Empire after Alexander died?

After Alexander died, his four generals divided the empire among themselves.
Rome would eventually conquer them.

42

What was significant about the Greek Language?

The Greek language became the official language of the Greek Empire.
It brought a common language to the Western world and made it easier to communicate.
The written Greek language would become pave the way to the spread of the Gospel in a few centuries.

43

Mars Hill in Athens

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Acts 17:16-32 Paul’s Sermon on the Areopagus [ar-ee-op-uh-guh s] or Mars Hill
As intelligent as the Greeks were, they still did not have God.