RAD 113 Test 4 Study Guide

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Infection Control & Aseptic Techniques
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1

Four basic infectious agents pathogens are divided into.

  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Fungi
  • Protozoan parasites
2

Microbial community found on or in a healthy person.

Flora

3

Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any organ, or system, of the body.

Caused by microorganisms.

Disease

4

Establishment and growth of a microorganism on or in a host.

Caused by pathogenic organisms.

Infection

5

Freedom from infection.

Asepsis

6

Microscopic, single-celled organisms that contain both DNA and RNA and r eside in a group or cluster called a colony.

Produces endospores.

Are prokaryotic.

Bacteria

7

Staining technique used to classify bacteria. Is done in a lab.

Gram staining

8

Lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles.

Prokaryotes

9

Classifications of bacteria.

  • Cocci (spheres)
  • Bacilli (rods)
  • Spirals
10

Microscopic, single-cells. Cannot live outside a living cell because they lack components for own survival.

Carry their own DNA or RNA but never both.

Viruses

11

Attaches to a host cell, inserts its own genetic information, and then redirects host cell to produce new viruses.

Virion (Viral particle)

12

Eukaryotic organisms that can be either macroscopic or microscopic.

They are much larger than bacteria

Fungi

13

Two forms of fungi that are microscopic.

  • Yeast
  • Mold
14

Four different classifications of diseases caused by fungi.

  • Superficial
  • Cutaneous
  • Subcutaneous fungal infection
  • Systemic infection
15

Enters the human host as a result of trauma to the skin.

Subcutaneous fungal infection

16

Enters circulatory and lymphatic system. May be fatal.

Systemic Infection

17

Involves the keratinized tissues of the hair, nails, and skin (athletes foot or ringworm).

Cutaneous

18

Discoloration of the skin (Tinea Nigra).

Superficial

19

Unicellular organisms that are neither plants nor animals.

They are eukaryotic distinguished from bacteria by their greater size and by the fact that they do not posses a cell wall.

Parasitic protozoa

20

Establishment of infectious diseases.

  • Encounter

(involves infectious organism coming in contact with the host)

  • Entry

(involves access to the organism through a portal of entry)

  • Spread

(The propagation of the infectious organism. Can take place before or after multiplication and requires overcoming the body's immune defenses. Is determined by the site where the microbe takes up residence )

  • Multiplication

(The growth in microbe numbers as a function of mitosis. Has incubation period)

  • Damage

(A microbe can induce a host response that also causes tissue and cell death. Can either be direct or indirect)

  • Outcome
21

Chain of infection.

  • Host
  • Infectious microorganism
  • Mode of transportation
  • Reservoir
22

Two types of entry.

  • Ingression

(does not involve deep tissue penetration. Attaches to outside. Can happen by either ingestion or inhalation)

  • Penetration

(involves the microorganism invading past the epithelial barrier)

23

Most common symptom caused by an ingressive organism.

Diarrhea

24

Type of damage that causes cell death.

Direct

25

Type of damage that causes interruption in how the cell works or functions.

Indirect

26

Three possible outcomes after an encounter with an infectious agent.

  • Host gains control of infectious agent and eliminates it
  • Infectious agent overcomes host's immunities to cause disease
  • Host and infectious agent compromise and live in a sort of symbiotic state.
27

Type of transmission that can occur when someone sneezes or coughs. Must be in close proximity.

Transmission by droplet

28

Most common type of transmission.

Contact

29

Carrier that transfers an infective agent from one host to another.

Vector

30

Passive host/carrier that harbors pathogenic organisms without injury to itself, and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected.

Reservoir

31

Routes for disease transmission.

  • Air
  • Droplet
  • Contact
  • Vector or fomite
32

Inanimate object that has been in contact with an infectious organism.

Fomite

(An example of a fomite is someone getting sick after eating contaminated food)

33

Infections acquired from the hospital.

Nosocomial infections

34

Most common nosocomial infection.

UTI

35

Infections caused by physician.

Iatrogenic infections

36

Factors that encourage nosocomial infections.

  • Environment
  • Therapeutic regimen
  • Equipment
  • Contamination during procedures
37

Factors increasing potential for nosocomial infections.

  • Age
  • Heredity
  • Nutritional status
  • Stress
  • Inadequate rest or exercise
  • Personal choice habits
  • Health history
  • Inadequate defenses
38

Two types of blood-borne pathogens that are of concern in the hospital setting.

  • HIV
  • HBV
39

Symptoms of HIV.

  • Weight loss
  • Muscle/joint pain
  • Glandular pain/swelling
  • Night sweats
40

Primarily affects the liver, resulting in swelling, soreness, and loss of normal liver functions.

Leads to yellow skin (jaundice).

HBV

41

Symptoms of HBV.

  • Weakness
  • Fatigue
  • Anorexia
  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Fever
  • Headaches
42

Defense mechanisms of the body.

  • Internal
  • External
43

Internal mechanisms.

  • Mechanical barriers
  • Chemical processes
  • Cellular processes
44

External mechanisms.

  • Normal microbial flora
  • Physical methods (hand washing)
  • Chemotherapeutic agents (bactericidal or bacteriostatic)
  • Immunizations
45

Complete removal of microbes.

Surgical Asepsis

46

Reduction in number of microbes.

Medical Asepsis

47

Chemical methods of asepsis.

Disinfectants

48

Device used for sterilizing with moist heat using steam under pressure.

Autoclave

49

The single most important means of preventing the spread of infection.

Hand washing

50

Most frequently used method of sterilization.

Heat

51

Operation performed under sterile technique that involves incising the skin over the trachea and then making surgical incision in the trachea.

Tracheostomy

52

Two main types of indwelling catheters.

  • Retention balloon (Foley)
  • Straight type
53

Urinary catheters use the __________ system for sizing.

French

54

Various purposes for the Foley catheter.

  • Bladder emptying
  • Relieve bladder retention
  • Irrigate bladder
  • Introduce drugs into the bladder
  • Permit accurate measurement of urine output
  • Relieve incontinence
55

List sources of infection.

  • Skin
  • Hair
  • Nasopharynx
  • Fomites
  • Air
  • Human error
  • Cross-contamination
56

Goals are to protect the patient from infection and to prevent the spread of pathogens and/or harmful microorganisms.

Cleans, sanitizes, and disinfects.

Aseptic techniques

57

Functions of pathogens.

  • Multiply in large numbers and cause obstruction
  • Cause tissue damage
  • Secrete exotoxins