RAD 113 Test 4 Study Guide
Four basic infectious agents pathogens are divided into.
- Protozoan parasites
Microbial community found on or in a healthy person.
Any deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of any organ, or system, of the body.
Caused by microorganisms.
Establishment and growth of a microorganism on or in a host.
Caused by pathogenic organisms.
Freedom from infection.
Microscopic, single-celled organisms that contain both DNA and RNA and r eside in a group or cluster called a colony.
Staining technique used to classify bacteria. Is done in a lab.
Lack nuclei and membrane-bound organelles.
Classifications of bacteria.
- Cocci (spheres)
- Bacilli (rods)
Microscopic, single-cells. Cannot live outside a living cell because they lack components for own survival.
Carry their own DNA or RNA but never both.
Attaches to a host cell, inserts its own genetic information, and then redirects host cell to produce new viruses.
Virion (Viral particle)
Eukaryotic organisms that can be either macroscopic or microscopic.
They are much larger than bacteria
Two forms of fungi that are microscopic.
Four different classifications of diseases caused by fungi.
- Subcutaneous fungal infection
- Systemic infection
Enters the human host as a result of trauma to the skin.
Subcutaneous fungal infection
Enters circulatory and lymphatic system. May be fatal.
Involves the keratinized tissues of the hair, nails, and skin (athletes foot or ringworm).
Discoloration of the skin (Tinea Nigra).
Unicellular organisms that are neither plants nor animals.
They are eukaryotic distinguished from bacteria by their greater size and by the fact that they do not posses a cell wall.
Establishment of infectious diseases.
(involves infectious organism coming in contact with the host)
(involves access to the organism through a portal of entry)
(The propagation of the infectious organism. Can take place before or after multiplication and requires overcoming the body's immune defenses. Is determined by the site where the microbe takes up residence )
(The growth in microbe numbers as a function of mitosis. Has incubation period)
(A microbe can induce a host response that also causes tissue and cell death. Can either be direct or indirect)
Chain of infection.
- Infectious microorganism
- Mode of transportation
Two types of entry.
(does not involve deep tissue penetration. Attaches to outside. Can happen by either ingestion or inhalation)
(involves the microorganism invading past the epithelial barrier)
Most common symptom caused by an ingressive organism.
Type of damage that causes cell death.
Type of damage that causes interruption in how the cell works or functions.
Three possible outcomes after an encounter with an infectious agent.
- Host gains control of infectious agent and eliminates it
- Infectious agent overcomes host's immunities to cause disease
- Host and infectious agent compromise and live in a sort of symbiotic state.
Type of transmission that can occur when someone sneezes or coughs. Must be in close proximity.
Transmission by droplet
Most common type of transmission.
Carrier that transfers an infective agent from one host to another.
Passive host/carrier that harbors pathogenic organisms without injury to itself, and serves as a source from which other individuals can be infected.
Routes for disease transmission.
- Vector or fomite
Inanimate object that has been in contact with an infectious organism.
(An example of a fomite is someone getting sick after eating contaminated food)
Infections acquired from the hospital.
Most common nosocomial infection.
Infections caused by physician.
Factors that encourage nosocomial infections.
- Therapeutic regimen
- Contamination during procedures
Factors increasing potential for nosocomial infections.
- Nutritional status
- Inadequate rest or exercise
- Personal choice habits
- Health history
- Inadequate defenses
Two types of blood-borne pathogens that are of concern in the hospital setting.
Symptoms of HIV.
- Weight loss
- Muscle/joint pain
- Glandular pain/swelling
- Night sweats
Primarily affects the liver, resulting in swelling, soreness, and loss of normal liver functions.
Leads to yellow skin (jaundice).
Symptoms of HBV.
- Abdominal pain
Defense mechanisms of the body.
- Mechanical barriers
- Chemical processes
- Cellular processes
- Normal microbial flora
- Physical methods (hand washing)
- Chemotherapeutic agents (bactericidal or bacteriostatic)
Complete removal of microbes.
Reduction in number of microbes.
Chemical methods of asepsis.
Device used for sterilizing with moist heat using steam under pressure.
The single most important means of preventing the spread of infection.
Most frequently used method of sterilization.
Operation performed under sterile technique that involves incising the skin over the trachea and then making surgical incision in the trachea.
Two main types of indwelling catheters.
- Retention balloon (Foley)
- Straight type
Urinary catheters use the __________ system for sizing.
Various purposes for the Foley catheter.
- Bladder emptying
- Relieve bladder retention
- Irrigate bladder
- Introduce drugs into the bladder
- Permit accurate measurement of urine output
- Relieve incontinence
List sources of infection.
- Human error
Goals are to protect the patient from infection and to prevent the spread of pathogens and/or harmful microorganisms.
Cleans, sanitizes, and disinfects.
Functions of pathogens.
- Multiply in large numbers and cause obstruction
- Cause tissue damage
- Secrete exotoxins