History - Ch. 6 - A Glory by the Sea: Classical Greece pp. 120-132

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1

What is the period of time beginning about 500 B.C. and lasted for 200 years?

The Classical Age of Greece

2

What Age was the peak of human achievement?

The Classical Age of Greece

3

People have looked back to this time period for patterns of government, philosophy, and the arts.

The Classical Age of Greece

4

Greece is a peninsula and bordered by three seas:

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the Mediterranean Sea – south
the the Aegean Sea – east
the Ionian Sea – west

5

What is the southern part of Greece called?

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Peloponnesus

6

What is the topography of Greece?

Greece’s mountainous terrain encouraged the growth of independent city-states rather than having a unified country.

7

What was the Greek's profession?

The Greeks were seafarers and traders.

8

What was the Dark Age of Greece?

The period of time before the Classical Age was called the Dark Age because there are few records.

9

Describe city states

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were like a large family, they claimed common ancestors, practice same customs, and spoke the same dialect

10

What is a monarchy?

rule by a king

11

What were the two most famous city-states?

Athens and Sparta

12

What is an oligarchy?

rule by the few; usually the upper class

13

What form of government did Athens have?

By 500 B.C., Athens became a democracy.

14

Which city state democracy became the most successful democracy in the ancient world?

The Athenian democracy

15

Describe voting in an Athenian democracy

Every male citizen over eighteen attended the meetings called the Assembly.
They listened to the leaders speak and voted.
Every male citizen had a voice.

16

Describe Sparta

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Sparta kept its oligarchy whose goal was to have a strong army.
Sparta made no advances in art and literature for centuries because it was forbidden.
Spartan boys were dedicated to the rulers of the city.
Spartan boys began training to be soldiers at age seven.
Spartans felt that learning to suffer hardships would make them good soldiers.

17

What was it like for women in Classical Greece?

Upper class Athenian women led sheltered lives and had slaves.
Lower class Athenian women that did not have slaves worked at home.
Spartan women received physical training much like the men.
They trained their boys to be loyal to the city state.
They sent their husbands and sons into battle saying, “Come back with your shield or on it!”
Women were not allowed to vote or be involved in governmental meetings.

18

What happened between Greece and Persia?

During the 5th century B.C. (the period of time from 500 to 401), the Greeks fought against the Persians.
The Persians did not like that the Greek city states were growing and wanted to make them part of their empire.
The Greeks fought the Persians for over ten year with many successes.

19

What was the Battle of Salamis Bay?

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In 480 B.C., the Greek fought against Xerxes, the Persian king, at the Battle of Salamis Bay and defeated them.

20

Who was Pericles?

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He was the most famous leader of the Athenian democracy.
He was one of the greatest orators (public speakers) of all time.
He love Athens and encouraged the Athenians to rebuild the Acropolis and construct other sacred buildings.
Athens took shape under, as we remember it, under Pericles’ leadership.

21

Describe the Acropolis

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was the center of religious worship in Athens.
was a settlement built on a hill with steep sides chosen for purposes of defense.
A statue of Athena once stood in the Acropolis.

22

Entrance Gate in Athens

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23

What is the Age of Pericles?

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the time of growth in Athens during the 5th century B.C.

24

agora

busy marketplace center of Athens
Schools, government building, courts, and private businesses were also located at the agora.
People also gathered at the agora to discuss politics and philosophy.

25

porches

open-air building in the marketplace where people gathered to buy and sell

26

What were Greek gods like?

The Greeks believed in many different gods that had supernatural powers but were not much different than humans in their humanity.

27

myths

stories about the lives of gods

28

Parthenon

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a pagan temple on top of the Acropolis dedicated to Athena made of white marble surrounded by 46 columns
The Parthenon is the ultimate example of Greek culture.
Optical illusions were worked into the architecture of the Parthenon.

29

Athena

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goddess of wisdom for whom the city of Athens is named
Around A.D. 400, the statue was captured by the Romans and take to Constantinople.

30

optical illusions

when an object appears to take a shape that it does not have