Physiology Lab Exam #1

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 1 year ago by jcalvillo883
12 views
updated 1 year ago by jcalvillo883
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Define Hematocrit (HCT)

  • % vol whole consisting of formed elements
2

What is the ratio of hematocrit?

  • volume of packed red blood cells /volume of whole blood
3

What is the hematocrit value?

  • 45%
4

What is the hemoglobin concentration value?

  • 14-16 gm% (15gm%)
5

Define hemoglobin concentration

  • Concentration (weight) of Hb in 100 ml whole blood
6

What is the hemoglobin concentration?

  • 14-16gm% (15gm%)
7

Define MCV

  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin
  • Average volume of single RBC
8

What is the MCV value?

  • 80-100 um3
9

Define MCH

  • Mean Corpuscular hemoglobin
  • Weight of Hb in single RBC
10

What is the value of MCH?

  • 32uug
11

Define MCHC

  • Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration
  • Concentration of Hb in a single RBC
12

What is the MCHC value?

  • 34%
13

What is the MCD?

  • 7-8um
14

What is the CI value?

  • 0.9-1.1
15

What is a standard curve?

  • A standard curve represents a relationship between two quantities
  • The standard curve is used to determine the value of an unknown quatitiy from one that is more easily measured
16

How was the standard curve generated?

  • Multiple samples with known properties are measured and graphed, which then allows the same properties to be determined for unknown samples by interpolation on the graph
17

What is absorbance?

  • Absorbance is directly proportional to the concentration of matter in the sample
  • The spectrophotometer reads how much light is absorbed by the solution
18

What is the relationship between absorbance and solute concentration?

  • The Lambert-Beer law indicates that absorbance is directly proportional to concentration
19

What are the reasons for obtaining a standard curve?

  • It helps to find an unknown concentration
  • The amount of light absorbed is directly proportional to the concentration.
20

Why was the blank used in the spectrophotometry?

  • It is important using a blank because the blank allows setting the spectrophotometer to zero before you measure the unknown solution
21

What is the basic principle of gel electrophoresis?

  • It is that serum protein molecules are charged with a negative charge and that these molecules will migrate towards the positive pole (anode) in an electric field
22

How are proteins separated by in serum electrophoresis (SPE)?

  • Proteins are separated according to their electrical charges
  • Negatively charged proteins move across the strip toward the anode (positive side)
23

Why are proteins negatively charged?

  • They contain an abundance of amino acids with "R" groups containing carboxyl units
  • The carboxyl units are acidic groups
24

Is SPE more a diagnostic test or more of a screening test?

  • Screening test
25

What is the most abundant protein in SPE? (biggest stain)

  • Albumin
26

What is the importance of positive and negative controls?

  • To show that the test is being done correctly
27

What is the basic principle of Western blots?

  • Western blotting uses electrical current to separate protein on the basis of their size
28

What is the basic principle of ELISAs?

  • The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is used to test for the presence of an antigen or antibody
29

What are the differences between Western Blots and ELISAs?

  • ELISA is the initial test and Western blots is the confirmatory test
  • The main difference between these techniques is that the ELISA technique uses a well that corresponds to a mixture of antigens
  • Western Blot has a discrete protein band that represents the specific antigen that the antibody is recognizing
30

What are the similarities between Western Blots and ELISAs?

  • Both are used to detect a protein and later treated with antibodies
  • Both use secondary antibodies that are enzyme-linked
  • Both are qualitative and quantitative
31

What is the difference between a direct ELISA and an indirect ELISA?

  • Direct ELISA is designed to detect an antigen or antigens because it is directly looking for the foreign substance
  • Indirect ELISA is designed to detect antibodies that the patient has made against the antigen
32

Which ELISA is used for pregnancy tests?

  • Direct ELISA
33

Which ELISA is used for HIV tests?

  • Indirect ELISA for the initial test
34

What test is used to confirm a positive HIV test?

  • Western Blotting
35

Why is ESR used?

  • Can be used to monitor whether the illness is becoming more active or flaring up
36

How do we interpret (compare) bands on an electrophoresis gel?

...

37

What are the differences among bands on electrophoresis telling us?

  • The darker the color is, then the more proteins there are
38

What was the thyroidectomized rat missing?

  • Thyroid gland
39

What was the hypophysectomized rat missing?

  • Pituitary gland
40

What is propylthiouracil (PTU)?

  • Inhibits the production of thyroxine by blocking iodine process
41

Which rats got a goiter when injected with TSH?

  • Normal rat
  • Hypophysectomized rat
42

Which rats got a goiter when injected with propylthiouracil?

  • Normal rat
43

What was the effect of thyroxine on the rats?

  • Normal rat
    • Metabolic rate increased
    • No mass
  • Thyroidectomized rat
    • Metabolic rate increased
    • No mass
  • Hypophysectomized rat
    • Metabolic rate increased
    • No mass
44

What was the effect of TSH on the rats?

  • Normal rat
    • Metabolic rate increased
    • Mass
  • Thyroidectomized rat
    • Metabolic rate stayed the same
    • No mass
  • Hypophysectomized rat
    • Metabolic rate increased
    • Mass
45

What was the effect of propylthiouracil on the rats?

  • Normal rat
    • Metabolic rate decreased
    • Mass
  • Thyroidectomized rat
    • Metabolic rate stayed the same
    • No mass
  • Hypophysectomized rat
    • Metabolic rate stayed the same
    • No mass
46

What causes Cushing's syndrome?

  • Increased cortisol by an adrenal gland tumor
47

What causes Cushing's disease?

  • Increased cortisol and ACTH by the anterior pituitary gland
48

What causes Addison's disease?

  • Decreased cortisol caused by the destruction of the adrenal cortex
49

What causes Secondary Adrenal insufficiency?

  • Decreased cortisol caused by damaged anterior pituitary
50

What is the formula for determining the cell count in 1mm3 based on the hemocytometer?

  • cell count from all squares counted x dilution factor/ number of squares counted x volume of individual squares
51

Why do we need to use Gower's/Turk's solution to dilute RBCs/WBCs?

Gower's/Hayem's solutions preserve corpuscles and prevent coagulation

52

What does ESR measure?

  • The settling of RBCs in a tube of whole blood
53

What happens to the ESR when the disease improves?

  • ESR decreases
54

In diseased conditions what is formed?

  • Rouleaux formation
55

What does the Tallquist method/scale give you?

  • Used to estimate the concentration of hemoglobin in values of gram%
56

What is the latent period?

  • It is the period of time that elapses between the generation of an action potential in a muscle cell and the start of muscle contraction
  • No force is generated
  • Chemical changes do occur like the release of calcium from the SR
57

What is frequency (temporal) summation?

  • Occurs when a second stimulus of the same intensity is applied to a muscle before the completion of the relaxation period of the first stimulus.
  • This results in increased muscle tension
58

What is spatial summation (motor unit recruitment)?

  • Increased number of motor units recruited
59

How is tetany achieved?

  • With rapid multiple stimulations, contractions fuse into a smooth, continuous, total contraction without evidence any relaxation
60

What is treppe?

  • Treppe is the progessive increase in force generated when a muscle is stimulated in succession, such that muscle twitches follow one another closely, with each successive twitch peaking slightly higher than the one before
  • Muscle is allowed to fully relax between stimuli
  • "Staircase effect"
61

What are factors determining the force of muscle contraction?

  1. Frequency of stimulation
  2. Number of motor units recruited
  3. Degree of muscle stretch
62

What factors determine conduction velocity?

  • Axon diameter
    • Larger the diameter, less resistance so action potential had greater conduction speed
  • Myelination
    • more myelination, greater conduction speed
63

What are VGC blockers and what is their effect on neurophysiology?

  • VGC blockers uses a mechanism in which a particular molecule is used to prevent opening of ion channel in order to produce a physiological response in a cell.
  • The action potential generation may affect because it depends on opening and closing of these channels
64

Do action potentials change with increasing stimulus intensity?

  • No, if the threshold has been met
65

What are the effects of calcium on neurophysiology?

  • Exocytosis of synaptic vesicles is normally triggered by an increase in calcium
66

What is the refractory period?

  • Absolute refractory period
  • The time in which no AP can be generated regardless of the strength of stimulus
67

How does pH and temperature affect enzyme activity?

  • Temperature
    • Boiling (high temp) denatures the enzyme
    • Freezing (low temp) preserve enzyme
68

What is the optimal pH and temperature for different digestive enzymes?

...

69

What is the role of bile in lipid digestion?

...

70

What was the test for salivary amylase?

...