Human A/P I Lab (Lab 7) Flashcards

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created 4 years ago by lmed_1
Pictures and descriptions needed for the second practical exam.
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Anterior Neck: Omohyoid

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Straplike with two bellies; lateral to sternohyoid


Anterior Neck: Geniohyoid

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Superior to medial border of mylohyoid muscle


Anterior Neck: Sternohyoid

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Runs most medially along neck; straplike

Origin: Manubrium and clavicle

Insertion: Hyoid bone

Action: Depress hyoid bone and larynx


Anterior Neck: Stylohyoid

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Slender muscle parallels posterior border of digastric; below angle of jaw

Origin: Styloid process of temporal bone

Insertion: Body of hyoid bone

Action: Elevates and retracts tongue, elevate hyoid bone and the larynx


Anterior Neck: Mylohyoid

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Just deep to digastric; forms floor of mouth

Origin: Mylohyoid line of mandible

Insertion: Hyoid bone

Action: Elevates floor of mouth and hyoid bone


Anterior Neck: Digastric

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Consists of two bellies united by an intermediate tendon; forms a V-shape under chin

Origin: Inferior surface of mandible, Mastoid of temporal bone

Insertion: Hyoid bone

Action: Depresses mandible or elevates larynx


Anterior Neck: Genioglossus

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Fan-shaped tongue muscle; forms the majority of the body of the tongue

Origin: Mandible

Insertion: Undersurface of tongue and hyoid bone

Action: Protraction: depresses and thrusts tongue forward


Anterior Neck: Styloglossus

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Arises from anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process

Origin: Styloid process of temporal bone

Insertion: Side and under surface of tongue

Action: Retraction: elevates tongue and draws it backward


Anterior Neck: Hyoglossus

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Flat, wide muscle that lies in the lateral portion of the root of the tongue

Origin: Body of hyoid bone

Insertion: Side of tongue

Action: Depresses tongue and draws down its sides


Head Movement: Sternocleidmastoid

*Know origin, insertion, and action*

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Long muscle in the side of the neck that extends up from the thorax to the base of the skull behind the ear

Origin: Sternum, clavicle

Insertion: Both: Mastoid process of the Temporal bone

Action: Flexes head, rotates head toward opposite side; spasm of this muscle alone associated with torticollis


Head Movement: Semispinalis capitis

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Deep to splenius, and medial to the longissimus cervicis and longissimus capitis


Head Movement: splenius capitis

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Broad, straplike muscle in the back of the neck


Vertebral Column, Spine: Cervical Spine

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Houses the spinal cord that messages from the brain to control all aspects of the body--allows movement in all directions.


Vertebral Column, Spine: Thoracic Spine

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Longest region of the spine, connects cervical between cervical and lumbar portions. Only spinal region attached to the rib cage.


Vertebral Column, Spine: Lumbar Spine

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Lower back, where the spine curves inward towards the abdomen.


Vertebral Column, Spine: Sacral Spine

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Triangular shaped bone consisting of five segments fused together.


Vertebral Column: Coccygeal Bone

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Tail-like bone at the end of spine


Vertebral Column: Atlas (C1)

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First cervical vertebra


Vertebral Column: Axis (C2)

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Second vertebral vertebra


Vertebral Column: Dens

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Protuberance of the Axis (C2)


Vertebrae: Spinous Process

*Identify each structure on each vertebrae*

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Bony projection off the posterior of each vertebrae.


Vertebrae: Transverse Process

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Small bony projection off the right and left side of each vertebrae.


Vertebrae: Vertebral foramen

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Vertebral arch creates a foramen (opening), found within a normal vertebrae.


Vertebrae: Vertebral body

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Thick oval segment of bone forming the front of the vertebrae.


Vertebrae: Lamina

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Flattened or arched part of the vertebral arch, forming the roof of the spinal canal.


Vertebrae: Pedicle

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Stub of bone that connects the lamina to the vertebral body.


Vertebrae: Inferior & superior articular process

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Projects superiorly and inferiorly from the vertebral arch.


Vertebrae: Inferior & superior articular facets

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Articular surface of the inferior and superior process of vertebrae.


Vertebrae, Sacrum: Base

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Broad and expanded, directed upward and forward. Articulates with the body of the fifth lumbar vertebrae in the midline.


Vertebrae, Sacrum: Apex

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Lower end of sacrum that articulates with the coccyx.


Vertebrae, Sacrum: Coccyx

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(Tailbone) Triangular arrangement of bone that makes up the very bottom portion of the spine below the sacrum.


Spinal Nerve: Endoneurium

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Connective tissue in a peripheral nerve, separating individual nerve fibers.


Spinal Nerve: Perineurium

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Connective tissue sheath surrounding each bundle of nerve fibers in a peripheral nerve.


Spinal Nerve: Epineurium

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Sheath of a peripheral nerve.


Cranial/Spinal Meninges: Dura Mater

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Tough outermost membrane enveloping the brain and spinal cord.


Cranial/Spinal Meninges: Arachnoid Mater

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Forms the middle layer of the meninges.


Cranial/Spinal Meninges: Subarachnoid Mater

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Interval between the arachnoid membrane and pia mater.


Cranial/Spinal Meninges: Pia Mater

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Innermost layer of the meninges and is directly adherent to the surface of the brain and spinal cord itself.


Spinal Cord: Dorsal Root (Sensory Neurons)

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Nerve cells within the nervous system responsible for converting external stimuli from the organism's environment into internal electrical impulses.


Spinal Cord: Ventral Root (Motor Neurons)

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Consits of axons from motor neurons whose cell bodies are found within the gray matter of the spinal cord.


Spinal Cord: Dorsal Root Ganglion

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Contains the cell bodies of sensory neurons that bring information from the periphery to the spinal cord.


Spinal Cord: Dorsal Ramus of Spinal Nerve

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Carries information that supplies muscles and sensation to the human back.


Spinal Cord: Ventral Ramus of Spinal Nerve

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Supply parts of the trunk and limbs.


Spinal Cord: White Matter

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Brain and spinal cord tissue, consisting mainly of nerve fibers with myelin sheaths.


Spinal Cord: Anterior White Commissure

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Bridge of white substance which connects the ventral columns over the dorsal end of the ventral median fissure.


Spinal Cord: Anterior/Ventral Median Fissure

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The more open ventral tissue of white matter in spinal cord; divides spinal cord in half.


Spinal Cord: Posterior/Dorsal Median Sulcus

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A shallow groove along the midline of the posterior part of the spinal cord.


Spinal Cord: Gray Matter

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Darker tissue of the brain and spinal cord, consisting mainly of nerve cell bodies and branching dendrites.


Spinal Cord:Anterior Gray Commissure

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Narrow bands of gray substance spanning the midline posterior to the central canal.


Spinal Cord: Posterior Gray Commissure

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Thin strip of gray matter that surrounds the central canal.


Spinal Cord: Central Canal

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Cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord.


Spinal Cord: Gray Horns

Formed from gray matter; Three types: dorsal, lateral, and ventral.


Spinal Cord: Posterior Gray Horn

One of the three gray columns of the spinal cord.


Spinal Cord: Conus Medullaris

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Bundled, tapered end of the spinal cord nerves.


Spinal Cord: Cauda Equina

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Base of the spinal column, near the first lumbar vertebra, is a collection of nerves.


Spinal Cord: Filum Terminale

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Strand of fibrous tissue, about 20 cm in length, proceeding downward from the apex of the conus medullaris.