Human Anatomy & Physiology: CHAPTER 25 QUIZ REVIEW Flashcards


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1

If the GFR is too low, needed substances may pass so quickly through the renal tubules that they are not absorbed and instead are lost in the urine.

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2

In the kidneys, the countercurrent mechanism involves the interaction between the flow of filtrate through the nephron loop of the juxtamedullary nephrons (the countercurrent multiplier) and the flow of blood through the limbs of adjacent blood vessels (the countercurrent exchanger). This relationship establishes and maintains an osmotic gradient extending from the cortex through the depths of the medulla that allows the kidneys to vary urine concentration dramatically.

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3

The path urine takes after it is formed until it leaves the body is the urethra, urinary bladder, and finally the ureter.

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4

Water reabsorption through the proximal convoluted tubule is termed obligatory water reabsorption, whereas water reabsorption through the distal convoluted tubule is termed facultative water reabsorption.

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5

The position of the kidneys behind the peritoneal lining of the abdominal cavity is described by the term retroperitoneal.

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6

The entire responsibility for urine formation lies with the nephron.

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7

Both the male and female urethras serve both the urinary and the reproductive systems.

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8

The act of emptying the bladder is called voiding.

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9

Glomerular filtration is an ATP-driven process.

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10

In the absence of hormones, the distal tubule and collecting ducts are relatively impermeable to water.

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11

The collecting duct is impermeable to water in the presence of ADH.

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12

The urethra contains an internal sphincter of smooth muscle.

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13

Angiotensin II is a substance made by the body to lower blood pressure during stress.

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14

Aldosterone is a hormone that causes the renal tubules to reclaim sodium ions from the filtrate.

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15

Blood pressure in the renal glomerulus is lower than in most parts of the body in order to conserve body water.

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16

The proximal convoluted tubule is the portion of the nephron that attaches to the collecting duct.

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17

Urea is reabsorbed in the nephron loop.

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18

Incontinence is the inability to control voluntary micturition.

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19

The myogenic mechanism reflects the tendency of vascular smooth muscle to stretch.

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20

An excessive urine output is called anuria.

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21

Tubular secretion is effective in controlling blood pH.

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22

The trigone is so named because of the shape of the urinary bladder.

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23

Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits sodium reabsorption.

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24

The macula densa cells are chemoreceptors that respond to changes in the urea content of the filtrate.

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25

Blood in the urine may be a symptom of bladder cancer.

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26

Obligatory water reabsorption involves the movement of water along an osmotic gradient.

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27

Having a kinked ureter is called renal ptosis

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28

Fetal kidneys have the primary responsibility of clearing wastes from the fetal blood

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29

Which of the following is the best explanation for why the cells of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) contain so many mitochondria?

A great deal of active transport takes place in the PCT.

30

What is the best explanation for the microvilli on the apical surface of the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT)?

They increase the surface area and allow for a greater volume of filtrate components to be reabsorbed.

31

The thin segment of the nephron loop's descending limb ________.

aids in the passive movement of water out of the tubule

32

The relatively long half-life of lipid soluble hormones (steroid hormones) compared to water soluble hormones is due in part to the way that these hormones are passed into the filtrate from the glomerular capillaries. From the list below select the best explanation for why lipid soluble (steroid) hormones have a relatively long half-life.

Steroid hormones travel in the plasma on large transport proteins that cannon pass through the filtration membrane.

33

The presence of protein in the urine indicates which of the following?

damage to the filtration membrane

34

Hydrostatic pressure is the primary driving force of plasma through the filtration membrane into the capsular space. All but one of the following statements reflects why hydrostatic pressure is so high in the glomerular capillaries. Select the one statement that does not explain the high pressure within the glomerular capillaries.

The volume of plasma in the efferent arteriole is higher when compared to the afferent arteriole.

35

Cells and transport proteins are physically prevented from passing through the filtration membrane. This has the following effect on filtration.

increasing osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries that reduces the amount of filtration

36

If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus increases (vasodilation) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will go up.

37

If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus increases (vasodilation) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will decrease.

38

If the diameter of the afferent arterioles leading to the glomerulus decreases (vasoconstriction) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will decrease.

39

If the diameter of the efferent arterioles leading away from the glomerulus decrease (vasoconstriction) which of the following is not likely to occur?

Systemic blood pressure will go up.