RAD 111 Test 4 Study Guide

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Radiographic and Fluoroscopic Equipment, & Basic Radiation Protection and Radiobiology
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1

Amount of clinically useful information on a diagnostic image. Must outweigh the input factors of the procedure ordered.

(Is the correct test being ordered?)

Diagnostic yield

2

Each imaging modality has its own __________ of information.

Diagnostic yield

3

Accuracy of diagnostic information on a medical image.

(Did the test provide the information that was needed?)

Diagnostic efficacy

4

Tilting radiographic tables will tilt from __________ to __________ to __________.

  1. Horizontal
  2. Vertical upright
  3. Trendelenburg
5

The interface between the radiographer and electronics of the x-ray machine.

Control console

6

Three key factors for exposure technique.

  1. kVp
  2. mA
  3. Time
7

Overhead Tubecrane (OTC) motions.

  1. Longitudinally
  2. Vertically
  3. Transversely
8

Image Receptor technology is classified as __________ or __________.

  1. Cassette-based (CR)
  2. Cassette-less (DR)
9

Cassette-based receptor systems.

  1. Film-screen
  2. Computed radiography (CR)
10

Systems that use thin-film technology (TFTs).

DR systems

(Referred to as flat panel technology)

11

Only radiation that is of any clinical value.

  1. Radiation absorbed by detector
  2. Radiation able to be converted to an image
12

Converts x-ray to light before converting it to an electrical signal.

Indirect digital detector technology

13

The ionizing radiation that is most prevalent and most harmful to the human body.

Indirect action

14

Technology that converts an x-ray into an electrical signal.

Direct digital detector technology

15

Commonly referenced as computed radiography (CR).

Photostimulable Phosphor (PSP) technology

(Also known as storage-phosphor tech.)

16

After having been exposed, CR plates are extra sensitive to __________.

Low-energy radiation

17

Fluoroscopy performed in surgery is typically accomplished with __________.

Portable C-arm system

18

Results in ionization of atoms.

Loss of electrons

19

Can have biologic effects.

Ionization

20

Two sources of ionizing radiation.

  1. Natural (sun)
  2. Manmade (Nuclear power plants)
21

Three sources of human-made radiation.

  1. Medical x-rays
  2. Dental x-rays
  3. Nuclear power
22

Conditions necessary for x-ray production.

  1. Source of electrons (Cathode filament)
  2. Means of accelerating electrons/high-speed motion (Voltage)
  3. Mechanism stopping electrons abruptly/deceleration (Target/Anode)
23

Energy of beam is expressed in __________.

Kiloelectron volts (keV)

24

Three possible paths an x-ray beam can undergo.

  1. Total absorption
  2. Pass through with no energy loss
  3. Scattering/secondary interaction with loss of energy
25

Five types of x-ray interactions with matter.

  1. Classic coherent scattering
  2. Photoelectric interactions
  3. Compton scattering
  4. Pair production
  5. Photodisintegration
26

Who does photoelectric interactions expose?

Patient

27

Who does compton scattering expose?

Radiographer

28

Reaction with matter that no ionization occurs.

Classic Coherent Scatter

29

Reaction with matter that involves very low energy x-rays.

Classic Coherent Scattering

30

SI units of measurement?

  1. Roentgen
  2. RAD
  3. REM
  4. Curie
31

Radiation exposure in air.

Roentgen

32

Radiation absorbed dose.

RAD

33

Unit of dose equivalence.

REM

34

Measures amount of energy absorbed in any medium.

RAD

35

New term for RAD.

Gray (Gy)

36

1 Gray = __________ rad.

100 rad

37

Accounts for different types of radiation and their biologic effects.

REM

38

New term for REM.

Sievert (Sv)

39

1 Sv = __________ rem.

100 rem

40

REM (Sv) is expressed as:

Product of absorbed dose in rad and radiation quality factor

(rem = rad X QF)

41

Measures activity of a radioactive material (radionuclide). It is used in medicine and radiation therapy.

Curie (Ci)

42

New term for curie (Ci).

Becquerel (Bq)

43

Becquerel (Bq) is defined as:

1 disintegration per second (1dps)

44

Units of energy equal to 1000 electron volts.

KeV (Kiloelectron volts)

45

Annual whole-body effective dose limit for the occupational worker.

5 rem (50 mSv)

46

Two major parts of a cell.

  1. Nucleus
  2. Cytoplasm
47

Percentage of water contained in the nucleus.

80%

48

Two classes of human cells.

  1. Somatic (any cell that is not a genetic cell)
  2. Genetic (will affect future generations)
49

The cells that perform all the bodies functions.

Somatic cells

50

Reproductive cells of an organism. Very radiosensitive.

Germ cells

51

According to the law of Bergonie and Tribondeau, cells are more radiosensitive if they are __________.

  1. Highly mitotic
  2. Primitive in structure
52

Cells are most sensitive to radiation during __________.

Active division

(More immature/rapidly dividing)

53

Acute radiation syndrome stages.

  1. Prodromal stage
  2. Latent period
  3. Manifest stage
  4. Recovery or death
54

Cardinal rules of protection of patient.

  1. Time (lowest possible)
  2. Distance
  3. Shielding
55

Two effects that occur within the diagnostic range.

  1. Photoelectric effect
  2. Compton scattering
56

Reaction with matter where the incoming photon interacts with an inner-shell (k-shell) electron and is completely absorbed.

Photoelectric Effect

57

Radiation interaction responsible for most hazard to patients.

Why?

Photoelectric effect

Because there is complete absorption in the patient

58

What type of exposure constitutes the greatest amount of man-made exposure?

  1. Dental
  2. Medical
59

Positive side of the x-ray tube.

Anode

60

Negative side of the x-ray tube.

Cathode

61

What part of the x-ray tube provides the source of electrons?

Filament

62

Which type of reaction with matter occurs when x-rays possess energy levels below 10 keV?

Coherent Scattering

63

In the Photoelectric effect, which electron produces an x-ray with energy high enough to impact your image?

The electron that drops in to the hole in the k-shell

64

Reaction with matter where an incoming photon interacts with an outer-shell electron and gives just enough energy to knock out the electron it collides with and continues on in a different direction.

Compton Scattering

65

How many chromosomes does a germ cell posses?

23

66

How many chromosomes does a somatic cell posses?

46 (23 pairs)

67

Reaction with matter where the incoming photon interacts with the force field around the nucleus then disappears.

Pair Production

68

Occurs above diagnostic range.

  1. Pair Production (radiation therapy)
  2. Photodisintegration (Nuclear industry)
69

Reaction with matter that requires very high energy photons.

Pair Production

70

For the pair production to occur, the energy of the incoming x-ray photon must be at least:

1.02 MeV

71

Reaction with matter that requires the energy of the photon to be extremely high.

Photodisintegration

72

Reaction with matter where the incoming photon interacts with the nucleus of the atom directly and creates nuclear instability.

Photodisintegration

73

Monthly equivalent dose to a fetus should not exceed __________

0.5 Sv (0.05 rem)

74

Personal radiation monitor that will provide a near immediate reading of radiation exposure.

Pocket dosimeter

75

Dose equivalent for radiation workers is based on radiation received from what source?

Occupational exposure

76

In radiographic/Fluoroscopic (R/F) system, the primary barrier is __________.

Image intensifier (flat panel detector)

77

A principle of the "ALARA" concept.

Occupational exposure should be kept as low as reasonably achievable