Reproductive system Flashcards


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1

the ductus deferens develops from the ____________ of the embryo.

mesonephric duct

2

The structure on a woman that is most comparable to the penis is the____________.

clitoris

3

The ovaries secrete androgens, progesterone, estrogens, and inhibin but not a follicle stimulating_____________.

hormone

4

The first haploid stage in oogenesis is the ______________________.

secondary oocyte

5

The hormone that most directly influences the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle is _______________.

progesterone

6

The ischemic phase of the uterus results from falling__________________.

progesterone levels

7

The expulsion of semen occurs when the bulbospongiosus muscle is stimulated by_________________neurons.

somatic efferent

8

Prior to ejaculation, sperm are stored primarily in the_______________.

epididymis

9

The penis is attached to the pubic arch by crura of the ________________________.

corpura cavernosa

10

The first hormone secreted at the onset of puberty is the _______________________hormone.

gonadotropin-releasing

11

When it is necessary to reduce sperm production without reducing testosterone secretion, the sustentacular cells secrete____________.

inhibin

12

Four spermatozoa arise from each ___________spermatogonium.

type B

13

The point in meiosis at which sister chromatids seperate from each other is ________________.

anaphase 2

14

Blood is forced out of the penile lacunae by contraction of the___________muscles.

trabecular

15

Under the influence of androgens, the embryonic _____________duct develops into the male reproductive tract.

mesonephric

16

The ductus develops from the ___________duct of the embryo.

mesonephric

17

Before secreting milk, the mammary glands secrete___________.

colostrum

18

Few women become pregnant while nursing because____________inhibits GnRH secretion.

prolactin

19

During the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle, the endometrium is prepared to receive a fertilized ovum principally by the hormone____________produced by the corpus luteum.

progesterone

20

Smooth muscle cells of the myometrium and myoepithelial cells of the mammary glands are the target cells for______________.

oxytocin

21

True or false. Ovulation occurs in the luteal phase of the sex cycle.

false

22

Each egg cell develops in its own fluid-filled space called a_____________.

follicle

23

The layer of cells closest to a mature secondary oocyte is the _____________________.

corona radiata

24

A tertiary follicle differs from a primary follicle in having a cavity called the_______________.

antrum

25

All the products of fertilization, including the embryo or fetus, the placenta, and the embryonic membranes are collectively called_____________.

conceptus

26

The funnel-like distal end of the uterine tube is called the______________and has feathery processes called_______________.

infundibulum, fimbriae

27

When a conceptus arrives in the uterus, it is at what stage of development?

morula

28

The entry of a sperm nucleus into an egg must be preceded by the______________________.

acrosomal reaction

29

The stage of the conceptus that implants in the uterine wall is a _______________.

blastocyst

30

Chorionic villi develop from the _____________________.

syncytiotrophoblast

31

The syndrome that results from aneuploidy.

turner

32

A transparent sac filled with fluid that protects embryo and forms from the maternal plasma filtrate and fetal urine.

amnion

33

One theory of senescence is that it results from a lifetime of damage by____________________.

free radicals

34

Photoaging is a major factor in the senescence of the ____________________.

integumentary system

35

For the first 8 weeks of gestation, a conceptus is nourished mainly by_________________.

decidual cells

36

Aneuploidy is caused by_________________, the failures of two homologous chromosomes to seperate in meiosis.

nondisjunction

37

______________is the term for the functional changes that sperm undergo in the female reproductive tract that allow them to fertilize a secondary oocyte.

capacitation

38

Fetal blood flows through_____________which project into the placental sinus.

chorionic villi

39

Nondisjunction of chromosome 21 results in ______________and_____________.

down syndrome, trisomy 21

40

True or false. Polyspermy is a common occurence in fertilization.

false

41

The glycoprotein layer internal to the corona radiata surrounding the oocyte is called the___________________.

zona pellucida

42

A multinucleate mass that grows roots and digests its way through the endometrium is a__________________.

syncytiotrophoblast

43

True or false. Twins are from different eggs fertilized by the same sperm.

false

44

The attachment of conceptus to the endometrium will cause______________ to occur.

implantation

45

Prior to fertilization an oocyte is called____________and after fertilization it is called_____________.

secondary oocyte, zygote

46

The placenta takes over the endocrine functions after the corpus luteum stops producing____________and ______________.

progesterone, estrogen

47

The fetal membrane that serves as an early site of blood formation and is the source of the cells that differentiate into primitive germ cells is the __________.

yolk sac

48

Nerves are formed from the______________, and muscles are formed from the____________.

ectoderm, mesoderm

49

True or false. The atlantis is an embryonic membrane.

false

50

The ductus arteriosus and the foramen ovale are circulatory shunts of_________________.

fetal circulation

51

____________are viruses, chemicals or other agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus.

teratogens

52

______________can occur through errors in DNA replication during the cell cycle or under the influence of environmental agents.

mutations

53

The blood testes barrier is formed by the tight junction in the ____________________.

sustentacular cells

54

Mitosis produces____genetically identical daughter cells.

2

55

Meiosis produces ____gametes, each with 1/2 the chromosome number of the original cell.

4

56

For every 1 spermatogonia there are ____spermatozoa.

4

57

What is lost from the uterus during the menstrual cycle?

stratum functionalis

58

In comparing the male and female sexual organs, the scrotum in the male is equivalent to the ________________________in females.

labia majora

59

During development, the vaginal process becomes separated from the peritoneal cavity and persists as a sac called the___________________which enfolds the anterior and lateral sides of the testes.

tunica vaginalis

60

Oxytocin directly stimulates contractions in the ________________.

myometrium

61

Onset of the first menses is called_______________ and permanent cessation of menses as part of the aging process is called___________.

menarche, menopause

62

Development of breasts.

thelarche

63

Growth of pubic and axillary hair.

pubarche

64

First menstrual period.

menarche

65

True or false. Risk factors are not a significant importance in the case of breast cancer.

false

66

The number of eggs released on a monthly cycle.

1

67

The monthly female reproductive cycle comes to an end due to constriction of the ___________________due to progesterone decline.

spiral arterioles

68

The_____________is the thickest part of the tail on a sperm where mitochondria are found.

midpiece

69

The________________is a lysosome in the form of a thin cap that covers the apical half of the nucleus of the sperm and contains enzymes that help the penetrate the egg.

acrosome

70

The term for undescended testes.

cryptorchidism

71

One of the two branches of the internal pudendal artery that supplies blood to the skin, fascia, and corpus spongiosum of the penis.

dorsal artery

72

One of the two branches of the internal pudendal artery that gives off smaller helicine arteries which penetrate the trabeculae and empty into the lacunae.

deep artery

73

When the ____________artery dialates, the lacunae fill with blood and the penis becomes erect.

deep

74

When the penis is flaccid, most of its blood supply comes from the __________arteries.

dorsal

75

A median deep__________________drains blood from the penis and into a plexus of prostatic veins.

dorsal vein

76

In the _________phase, variables such as respiratory rate, heart rate, and blood pressure are sustained at a high level, or rise slightly, for a few seconds to a few minutes before orgasm.

plateau

77

Days 15 to 28, from just after ovulation to the onset of menstruation, are called the __________phase.

luteal

78

The last 2 days or so of the menstrual cycle are the ______________phase, a period of endometrial degeneration.

premenstrual

79

When enough menstrual fluid accumulates in the uterus, it begins to be discharged from the vagina for a period called the____________phase. (first 5 days)

menstrual

80

In the _______________phase, the mature (graafian) follicle bulges through the surface of the ovary.

preovulatory

81

The______________phase is days 6-13 of the ovarian cycle where one follicle outgrows the others.

preovulatory

82

The tail is the___________that makes the sperm motile.

flagellum

83

The duct of the epididymis straightens out at the tail, turns 180 degrees, and becomes the______________.

ductus deferens

84

The _____________________is an extensive network of veins from the testis that surround the testicular artery in the spermatic cord.

pampiniform plexus

85

Without the_________________, warm arterial blood would heat the testis and inhibit sperm production.

pampiniform plexus

86

The seminiferous tubules lead into a network called the_______testis, where sperm partially mature.

rete

87

A bundle of fibrous connective tissue containing the ductus deferens, blood and the lymphatic vessels, and testicular nerves.

spermatic cord

88

The ______________ is a cordlike structure containing muscle that extends from the gonad to the abdominopelvic floor which shortens and guides the testes to the scrotum.

gubernaculum

89

The_______________ducts eject sperm and seminal vesicle secretions to the prostatic urethra.

ejaculatory

90

In males, the mesonephric ducts develop into the reproductive tract and the _________________ducts degenerate. In females the opposite occurs.

paramesonephric

91

____pair(s) of autosomes and____pair(s) of sex chromosomes = a total of ____ chromosomes.

22, 1, 46

92

The midpiece of the sperm is where ____________(ATP production) occurs.

metabolism

93

_________ gland fluid lubricates the urethra and protects the sperm by neutralizing the acidity of residual urine in the urethra.

bulbourethral (cowpers)

94

Most of the energy for sperm motility is derived from the metabolism of __________ carried in the seminal fluid.

fructose

95

The__________gland surrounds the urethra and ejaculatory ducts and produces the thin, milky secretion that constitutes 25-30% of semen.

prostate

96

The________________are two inch glands that lie posterior to the urinary bladder and secrete fluid that makes 60% of semen and dumps it into the ejaculatory ducts.

seminal vesicles

97

The______________is the site of sperm motility maturation over a 10-14 day period. It stores sperm and aids in ejaculation.

epididymis

98

Haploid (n) cells that divide by Meiosis II to produce two spermatids--a total of 4 for each spermatogonium.

secondary spermatocytes

99

The resulting 4 haploid cells in Meiosis II are called____________.

spermatids

100

______________________are in the seminiferous tubules of diploid cells and divide by Meiosis I to form secondary spermatocytes.

primary spermatocytes

101

Primordial germ cells differentiate into________________.

spermatogonia

102

Type ____spermatogonia remain in the body to replenish gametes throughout life due to their supply of stem cells.

A

103

Type____spermatogonia become primary spermatocytes.

B

104

Spermatogonia divide____________to form primary spermatocytes.

mitotically

105

The formation of haploid sperm in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. Takes 65-75 days in humans.

spermatogenesis

106

Changes that transform spermatids into spermatozoa. (discards excess cytoplasm and growing tails)

spermiogenesis

107

________________cells promote sperm cell development and regulate the rate of sperm production by secreting the hormone, inhibin.

sustentacular

108

The blood-testis barrier is formed by tight junctions between_______________cells, separating sperm from the immune system.

sustentacular

109

Between the seminiferous tubules are clusters of______________cells, the source of testosterone.

interstitial

110

The female reproductive tract develops from the paramesonephric duct because of the absence of ______________and the mullerian-inhibiting factor.

testosterone

111

The period from onset of gonadotropin secretion until the ability to reproduce sexually is attained.

puberty

112

The rise in_________and_________secretion after age 50 produces male andropause.

FSH, LH

113

The outer fibrous tissue that lies underneath the skin and surrounds the corpora cavernosa and the corpus spongiosum.

tunica albuginea

114

The _______________muscle contracts and draws the testes closer to the body to keep them warm.

cremaster

115

In males it contributes to erection, ejaculation, and the feelings of orgasm. In females it contributes to clitoral erection and the feelings of orgasm, and closes the vagina.

bulbospongiosus muscle

116

_______________ is a biological process by which diploid or haploid precursor cells undergo cell division and differentiation to form mature haploid gametes.

gametogenesis

117

The ______________is anatomically homologous to the clitoral glans of the female.

glans penis

118

The formation of gametes in the ovaries via meiosis. Stimulated by gonadotrophic hormones from the pituitary gland.

oogenesis

119

The_________________is the external serosa layer of the uterine wall of the female.

perimetrium

120

During the menstrual cycle, the _____________ grows to a thick, blood vessel-rich, glandular tissue layer. This represents an optimal environment for the implantation of a blastocyst upon its arrival in the uterus.

endometrium

121

The ________________is a deeper layer of the uterine wall that regenerates a new stratum functionalis with each menstrual cycle.

stratum basalis

122

The____________is composed of three layers of smooth muscle fibers which produce labor contractions to expel fetus during delivery.

myometrium

123

The cessation of menstruation.

menopause

124

Women, like men, go through a midlife change in hormone secretion called the _____________. In women, it is accompanied with menopause.

climacteric

125

Normally, only one follicle in each month's cohort becomes a_________________, destined to ovulate while the rest degenerate.

(mature) graffian follicle

126

Part of an egg undergoing folliculogenesis where the grown primordial follicles are surrounded by 7-8 layers of cells.

primary follicle

127

Part of folliculogenesis where the the follicular cells multiply and pile atop eachother to form multiple layers.

secondary follicle

128

The theca folliculi layers to form an outer fibrous capsule, rich in blood vessels, called the ______________and an inner cellular, hormone-secreting layer, the________________.

theca externa, theca interna

129

The normal uterine discharge of blood, tissue, and mucus from the vagina after childbirth.

lochia

130

Agents that cause anatomical deformities in the fetus.

teratogens

131

During fetal development, most venous blood bypasses the immature liver by way of a shunt called the ____________________, which leads to the inferior vena cava.

ductus venosus

132

During fetal development, when the lungs are immature, blood bypasses the pulmonary circuit and some goes directly from the right atrium to the left through the _______________. (closes at time of birth)

foramen ovale

133

Most of the blood that bypasses the pulmonary circuit is shunted directly into the aorta by way of a short passage called the __________________.

ductus arteriosus

134

A rare genetic disorder due to a missing part of chromosome 5.

cri du chat

135

Down syndrome is caused by a nondisjunction of______________.

autosomes

136

Triplo X syndrome, Klinefleltzer syndrome, and Turner syndrome are all due to a nondysjunction of_____________________.

sex chromosomes

137

Infertile female with mild intellectual impairment due to the egg receiving 2 X chromosomes fertilized by 1 X carrying sperm.

triplo x syndrome (XXX)

138

Sterile males with average intelligence (undeveloped testes) due to the egg receiving 2 X chomosomes fertilized by 1 Y carrying sperm.

klinefelter syndrome (XXY)

139

Sterile, webbed neck, female with no 2nd sexual features due to the egg receiving no X chromosomes but fertilized by X carrying sperm.

turner syndrome (XO)

140

An _____________ is a gene that has the potential to cause cancer.

oncogene

141

_______________ is the presence of an extra chromosome or lack of one which accounts for about 50% of spontaneous abortions.

aneuploidy

142

The ______________and the placenta secrete relaxin.

corpus luteum

143

LH stimulates the ______________ to continue growing and to secrete rising levels of estraidol and progesterone.

corpus luteum

144

The corpus ____________is a degenerated corpus luteum

albicans

145

The innermost layer of cells in the cumulus, surrounding the zona pellucida and oocyte.

corona radiata

146

The paternal and maternal chromosomes exchange segments of DNA in a process called________________.

crossing-over

147

The fusion of two gametes in fertilization.

syngamy

148

The pairing of homologous chromosomes during early meiotic prophase in gametogenesis to form double or bivalent chromosomes.

synapsis

149

Estrogen stimulates mitosis in the _______________and the prolific regrowth of blood vessels, thus regenerating the functionalis. (endometrium consists of only this layer around day 5 of menstruation)

stratum basalis

150

The______________provides fetal nutrition and waste disposal, and secretes hormones that regulate pregnancy, mammary development, and fetal development.

placenta

151

The___________appears when conceptus arrives in the uterus and is characterized by a spherical stage consisting of 16 or more blasphomeres. (Age 3-4 days)

morula

152

A single diploid cell formed by the union of egg and sperm. (Age 0-30 hrs)

zygote

153

The developing individual is a hollow ball called a blastocyst for much of the first 2 weeks, an embryo from day 16 through week 8, and a _________from the beginning of week 9 until birth.

fetus

154

The _______________secretes HCG that causes the corpus luteum to continue producing progesterone and estrogen, preventing menstruation.

trophoblast

155

A blastocyst consists of inner cell mass (developing embryo) and outer cell mass(______________).

trophoblast

156

Any of the germinal disk cells of the inner cell mass in the blastocyst that form the embryo.

embryoblast

157

The attachment of conceptus to endometrium.

implantation

158

While migrating, sperm must undergo a process of_______________ that makes it possible to penetrate an egg.

capacitation

159

The egg has a fast block and a slow block to prevent _____________ by more than one sperm (polyspermy).

fertilization

160

The foundation of unbilical cord and urinary bladder.

allantois

161

The end result of oogenesis is _______haploid oocyte(s) and ______polar bodies.

1,3

162

Twins cannot come from different eggs fertilized by the_________sperm.

same

163

During the embryonic stage of development, all three primary_________layers are present.

germ

164

_________secretion increases to about 30 times the usual amount by the end of gestation.

estrogen

165

An acute rise of _______triggers ovulation and development of the corpus luteum, which then secretes increasing amounts of progesterone and estrogen.

LH

166

Prevents involution of corpus luteum and stimulates its growth and secretory activity. It is the basis of pregnancy tests and is secreted by the placenta and blastocyst.

HCG

167

Regulates the development, growth, pubertal maturation, and reproductive processes of the body.

FSH

168

Rising levels of_________stimulate the anterior lobe of the pituitary to secrete follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and lutenizing hormone (LH).

GnRH

169

Ectopic pregnancy usually occurs in the_____________.

uterine tube

170

The outermost membrane of the sac enclosing the fetus that secretes hCG in order to maintain progesterone secretion and sustain a pregnancy.

chorion

171

True or false. The preplacental stage is part of fetal development.

false

172

Immunological adaptation is possible due to ________ from the placenta and IgA's from milk.

IgG's

173

___________inhibits FSH.

inhibin