nutrition

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1

screening

  • essential part of an initial assessment
  • it is a quick method to identify malnutrition
  • combines objective measures with subjective measures
  • asses patients for malnutrition when they have conditions that interfere with ability to absorb adequate nutrition
2

nutrition screening tools gather data on_______

the current condition, stability of condition, assessment of whether it will worsen, if disease process accelerates

3

subjective global assessment

  • uses patient's history, weight, and physical assessment data to assess nutritional status.
  • able to predict nutrition-related complications
4

mini nutritional assessment

  • screens older adults in home care programs, nursing homes, and hospitals
5

anthropometry

measurement system of the size and make up of body

6

ideal body weight

provides an estimate of what a person should weigh

7

body mass index

measures weight corrected for height and serves as an alternative to tradition height-weight relationships

  • weight (kg)/height (m2)
8

lab and biochemical tests

  • not a diagnostic test for malnutrition
9

factors that alter test results include

fluid balance, liver function, kidney function, presence of disease

10

common lab test used to study nutritional status include

  • measures of plasma protein (albumin, transferrin, prealbumin, retinol-binding protein)
11

diet history and health history

  • use data from a more specific diet history to assess a patient's actual or potential nutritional needs.
  • focuses on a patient's habitual intake of foods and liquids.
12

physical examination

observe for malnutrition during physical assessment.

13

dysphagia

  • difficulty swallowing
  • leads to disability or decreased functional status, increased length of stay and cost of care.
  • signs: cough during eating, change in voice tone, or quality swallowing, abnormal movements of mouth, tongue or lips, slow, weak, imprecise or uncoordinated speech.
14

nursing diagnosis

  • risk for aspiration
  • diarrhea
  • overweight
  • imbalanced nutrition
  • readiness for enhanced nutrition
  • feeding self-care deficit
  • impaired swallowing
  • obesity
15

antibodies

  • malnutrition effect: decreased amount
  • vital nutrient: protein, vitamin A, B6 B12, C, folic acid, thiamin, biotin, riboflavin, niacin
16

GI tract

  • malnutrition effect: systemic movement of bacteria
  • vital nutrient: arginine, glutamine, omega-3 fatty acids
17

granulocytes and macrocytes

  • malnutrition effect: longer time for phagocytosis kill time and lymphocyte activation
  • vital nutrient: protein, vitamin A, B6 B12, C, folic acid, thiamin, biotin, riboflavin, niacin , zinc, iron
18

mucus

  • malnutrition effect: flat microvilli in GI tract, decreased antibody secretion
  • vital nutrient: Vitamin B6, B12, C, biotin
19

skin

  • malnutrition effect: integrity compromised, density reduced, wound healing slowed
  • vital nutrient: protein, vitamins A, B12, C, niacin, copper, zinc
20

T-lymphocyte

  • malnutrition effect: depressed T-cell distribution
  • vital nutrient: protein, arginine, iron, zinc, omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins A, B6, B12, folic acid, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid
21

clear liquid

clear fat-free broth, bouillon, coffee, tea, carbonated beverages, clear fruit juices, gelatin, fruit ices, popsicles

22

full liquid

as for clear liquid, with addition of smooth-textured dairy product, stained or blended cream soups, custards, refined cooked cereals, vegetable juice, pureed vegetables, all fruit juices, sherbets, puddings, frozen yogurt

23

dysphagia stages, thickened liquids, pureed

clear and full liquid, with addition of scrambled eggs, pureed meats, vegetables, and fruits, mashed potatoes and gravy

24

mechanical soft

clear and full liquid and pureed, with addition of all cream soups, ground or finely diced meat, flaked fish, cottage cheese, cheese, rice, potatoes, pancakes, light breads, cooked vegetables, cooked and canned fruits, bananas, soups, peanut butter, eggs

25

soft/low residue

addition low-fiber, easily digested foods such as pastas, casseroles, moist tender meats, and canned cooked fruits and vegetables, desserts, cakes, and cookies without nuts or coconut

26

high fiber

addition of fresh uncooked fruits, steamed vegetables, bran, oatmeal, and dried fruits

27

low sodium

4-g (no added salt), 2-g, 1-g, or 500mg sodium diets; vary from no added salt to severe sodium restriction(500mg sodium diet), which requires selective food purchases

28

low cholesterol

300mg/day cholesterol, in keeping with American Heart Association guidelines for serum lipid reduction

29

diabetic

nutrition recommendations by American Diabetes Association; focus on total energy, nutrient and food distribution, include a balanced intake of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins; varied caloric recommendations to accommodate patient's metabolic demands

30

gluten free

eliminates wheat, oats, rye, barley, and their derivatives

31

regular

no restrictions unless specified