Clinical Laboratory Chemistry: Chapter 12, Electrolytes Flashcards


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1

Which of the following conditions will cause an increase anion gap?
Renal failure
Hypoaldosteronism
hyperkalemia

Renal failure

2

What four groups of eletrolytes determine the anion gap?

Sodium, chloride, __________, and TCO2

Potassium

3

Lactate acidious, Diabetes mellitus, salicylate intoxication will all be charicterized by an increased ____________.

Anion gap

4

Elevated sweat chloride is associated with what disease?

Cystic fibrosis

5

In the blood, biocarbonate leaves the RBC and enters the plasma through exchange mechanism with what ion?

Chloride

6

The presence of only slightly visible hemolysis can increase the serum level of what ion?

Potassium

7

These conditions are associated with hyponatremia:

________ disease, Diuretic therapy,
Diarrhea

Addison's

8

Decreased potassium levels is called?

*may be seen in : stravation, Alkalosis, and diarrhea and vomiting

Hypokalemia

9

The measurement of sodium, potassium, and chloride are commonly performed in labs by __________

Ion selective electrodes (ISE)

10

Calculate the anion gap:

Sodium=143 mmol/L
chloride=105 mmol/L
HCO3=25 mmol/L

13 mmol/L

11

Increased sodium (salt) levels is called?

Seen in:
Diabetes insipidus, hyperadrenalism(cushings), dehydration

Hypernatremia

12

What is the normal sodium range?

135-148 mmol/L

13

Hyponatremia, decreased salt levels, is seen in:

Severe diarrhea, diabetes mellitus, decreased _____________ (Addison's), and edema

Aldosterone

14

What is the normal range for Potassium?

3.8-5.5 mmol/L

15

Increases in ___________ can affect heart muscle function.

Can be caused by:

Anoxia, acidosis, decreased aldosterone secretion, circulatory failure, shock, and renal failure.

Hyperkalemia.

Potassium

16

Chloride reference range:

98-108 mmol/L

17

Low Chloride can cause?

Caused by:
Diabetes, renal disease, and excess vomiting

Acidosis

18

Biocarbonate normal ranges are?

22-28 mmol/L

19

What does biocarbonate do?

It can it cause:

A change in respiration, lung disease, CNS depression, and diabetic ketosis

Maintains pH

20

What is the equation for anion gap?

Na-(Cl+HCO3)

21

What is the osmolarity equation?

(2Na)+(glu/18)+(BUN/2.8)

22

The liquid part of blood remaining after clot has formed, lacks fibrinogen and other clotting factors

Serum

23

A blood component after use of anticoagulant; is composed of water, ions, and macromolecules such as fibrinogen and other proteins.

Plamsa

24

What is the major intracellular cation?

Potassium

25

What is the major extracellular cation?

Sodium

26

What is the major extracellular anion?

Chloride

27

In a sweat chloride test: what is the sweat stimulationg done by?

Pilocarpine iontophoresis

28

What is the test method used for sodium, potassium, and chloride?

ISE

29

What are the test methods used for bicarbonate?

Serum TOTAL CO2, indirect electrode, or photometric assay

30

What are the 4 colligate properties of solutions?

Osmotic pressure
Vapor pressure
Freezing pt
Boiling pt

31

A patient with a toxic level of blood alcohol would cause an __________ in osmolal gap

Increase

32

Serum lacks what constituent?

Fibrinogen

33

A family of peptides called natiuretic peptides serves to regulate what?

Sodium and water metabolism

34

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor that __________ ADH secretion and ____________.

Stimulates ADH secretion and thrist

35

Major ions of body fluids are called__________.

Electrolytes

36

What is it called if blood pH falls below 7.35?

Acidosis

37

What three analytes are used to calculate serum osmolality?

Glucose, urea nitrogen, and sodium

38

_____________ and __________ measures chloride in sweat.

Coulometry and amperometry

39

What is the major difference between interstitial fluid and plasma?

Interstitial fluid - almost no protein
Plasma - large amount of protein

40

Major actions of ______________ are vasoconstriction increased, and triggers aldosterone release from adrenal glands

Angiotensin II