Which of the following conditions will cause an increase anion gap?
What four groups of eletrolytes determine the anion gap?
Sodium, chloride, __________, and TCO2
Lactate acidious, Diabetes mellitus, salicylate intoxication will all be charicterized by an increased ____________.
Elevated sweat chloride is associated with what disease?
In the blood, biocarbonate leaves the RBC and enters the plasma through exchange mechanism with what ion?
The presence of only slightly visible hemolysis can increase the serum level of what ion?
These conditions are associated with hyponatremia:
________ disease, Diuretic therapy,
Decreased potassium levels is called?
*may be seen in : stravation, Alkalosis, and diarrhea and vomiting
The measurement of sodium, potassium, and chloride are commonly performed in labs by __________
Ion selective electrodes (ISE)
Calculate the anion gap:
Increased sodium (salt) levels is called?
Diabetes insipidus, hyperadrenalism(cushings), dehydration
What is the normal sodium range?
Hyponatremia, decreased salt levels, is seen in:
Severe diarrhea, diabetes mellitus, decreased _____________ (Addison's), and edema
What is the normal range for Potassium?
Increases in ___________ can affect heart muscle function.
Can be caused by:
Anoxia, acidosis, decreased aldosterone secretion, circulatory failure, shock, and renal failure.
Chloride reference range:
Low Chloride can cause?
Diabetes, renal disease, and excess vomiting
Biocarbonate normal ranges are?
What does biocarbonate do?
It can it cause:
A change in respiration, lung disease, CNS depression, and diabetic ketosis
What is the equation for anion gap?
What is the osmolarity equation?
The liquid part of blood remaining after clot has formed, lacks fibrinogen and other clotting factors
A blood component after use of anticoagulant; is composed of water, ions, and macromolecules such as fibrinogen and other proteins.
What is the major intracellular cation?
What is the major extracellular cation?
What is the major extracellular anion?
In a sweat chloride test: what is the sweat stimulationg done by?
What is the test method used for sodium, potassium, and chloride?
What are the test methods used for bicarbonate?
Serum TOTAL CO2, indirect electrode, or photometric assay
What are the 4 colligate properties of solutions?
A patient with a toxic level of blood alcohol would cause an __________ in osmolal gap
Serum lacks what constituent?
A family of peptides called natiuretic peptides serves to regulate what?
Sodium and water metabolism
Angiotensin II is a potent vasoconstrictor that __________ ADH secretion and ____________.
Stimulates ADH secretion and thrist
Major ions of body fluids are called__________.
What is it called if blood pH falls below 7.35?
What three analytes are used to calculate serum osmolality?
Glucose, urea nitrogen, and sodium
_____________ and __________ measures chloride in sweat.
Coulometry and amperometry
What is the major difference between interstitial fluid and plasma?
Interstitial fluid - almost no protein
Plasma - large amount of protein
Major actions of ______________ are vasoconstriction increased, and triggers aldosterone release from adrenal glands