RAD 113 Test 3 Study Guide

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Vital Signs, Oxygen, Chest Tubes, and Lines
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1

Cessation of spontaneous ventilation.

Apnea

2

Absence of gas from part or the whole of the lungs as a result of failure of expansion or reabsorption of gas from the alveoli.

Atelectasis

3

The body's "steady state". It is maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy living.

Homeostasis

4

Reflects degree of heat of the deep tissues of the human body.

Body temperature

5

Slowness of the heartbeat as evidenced by slowing of the pulse rate to less than 60 beats per minute.

Bradycardia

6

Mechanisms for homeostasis.

  • Heartbeat
  • Blood pressure
  • Body temperature
  • Respiratory rate
  • Electrolyte balance
7

Vital signs.

  • Body temperature
  • Pulse rate
  • Respiratory rate
  • Mental state
  • Sensorium
8

Normal mean of body temperature.

97.7 - 99.5 F

9

Normal range of respirations for an adult.

12 - 20 breaths per minute

10

Normal range of respirations for a child.

20 - 30 breaths per minute

11

Normal pulse rate for adults.

60 - 100 BPM

12

Normal pulse rate for children.

70 - 120 BPM

13

Normal blood pressure.

120/80

(Systolic - 120 mm Hg, Diastolic - 80 mm Hg)

14

Plays a role in preservation of heat (shivering) and regulation of heat loss (sweating).

Hypothalamus

15

A patient with a fever is said to be __________.

Febrile

16

Temperature below 97.7 F.

Hypothermia

17

Oral temperature higher than 99.5 F.

Hyperthermia

18

Average oral temp.

98.6 F

19

Average tympanic temp.

97.6 F

20

Average temporal temp.

100 F

21

Average rectal temp.

99.6 F

22

Average axillary temp.

97.6 F

23

Obtained by placing thermometer high between the upper arm and the torso. It is notoriously inaccurate and time-consuming.

Axillary temp.

24

Obtained by placing thermometer in the ear.

Tympanic temp.

25

Common sites for measuring pulse.

  • Radial artery (wrist)
  • Brachial artery
  • Carotid artery (neck)
26

Reflects the rapidity of each heart contraction and are recorded as the number of beats per minute (BPM).

Pulse rates

27

During CPR, where is pulse typically measured?

Carotid artery

28

Converts light intensity into oxygen saturation and pulse rate values. Can have it attached to earlobe, temple, nose, or foot.

For infants, a light-emitting probe is placed on big toe.

Pulse oximeter

29

Pulse measured by listening to the heart with a stethoscope.

Apical

30

Rapidity of the heart action, usually defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.

Tachycardia

31

Volume of air inhaled and exhaled during one respiratory cycle.

Tidal volume

32

Measure of force exerted by blood on the arterial walls during contraction and relaxation of the heart.

Blood pressure

33

Pertaining to dilation, or a period of relaxation of the heart, especially of the ventricles.

Diastolic pressure

34

Pertaining to tightening, or a period of contraction of the heart (myocardium).

Systolic pressure

35

Persistently high arterial blood pressure.

Above 140/90 mm Hg

Hypertension

36

Abnormally low blood pressure; seen in shock but not necessarily indicative of shock

Less than 95/60 mm Hg

Hypotension

37

Decreased oxygen tension (concentration) in the blood.

Hypoxemia

38

Reduction of oxygen supply to the tissue.

Hypoxia

39

Increased amounts of fluid within the pleural cavity, usually the result of inflammation.

Pleural Effusion

40

Presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity.

Pneumothorax

41

Accurate measurement for respiratory assessment.

  • Rate
  • Depth
  • Pattern
42

Two pieces of equipment required when measuring blood pressure.

  • Sphygmomanometer
  • Stethoscope
43

Blood pressure is measured in __________.

Millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)

44

Where blood pressure is typically measured.

Brachial artery

45

Oxygen devices.

  • Nasal cannula
  • Masks
  • Tents and oxyhood
  • Ventilators
46

Oxygen delivery devices are designed to operate at a certain number of __________.

Liters per minute (LPM)

47

Most common device used to deliver low concentrations of oxygen.

Nasal cannula

48

Two types of masks that are used for oxygen therapy.

  • Aerosol
  • Nonbreathing
49

Consists of disposable or permanent plastic box that fits over the head.

Used for pediatric patients requiring oxygen therapy.

Generally used on infants.

Oxyhood

50

Covers the child's bed. It is difficult controlling oxygen concentration because of the frequent openings necessary for childcare which allows oxygen to escape.

Oxygen tents

51

Used to manage a variety of respiratory complications.

A radiograph will always be performed to ensure proper placement.

Endotracheal tubes

52

Indications for use of an endotracheal tube.

  • Need mechanical ventilation or oxygen delivery
  • Inadequate arterial oxygenation
  • Parenchymal diseases that impair gas exchange
  • Upper-airway obstruction
  • Impending gastric acid reflux or aspiration
  • Tracheobronchial lavage
53

Are used to drain the intrapleural space and the mediastinum.

Thoracostomy tubes (chest tubes)

54

Chest tubes reestablish negative intrapleural pressure in cases of:

  • Pneumothorax
  • Hemothorax (collection of blood)
  • Pleural Effusion
  • Empyema (collection of pus in pleural cavity)
55

Common insertion site for chest tubes.

(Insertion sites vary with the intrapleural substances to be removed)

  • Usually inserted in 5th to 6th intercostal space
  • Laterally and midaxillary line
  • Can be as high as 4th intercostal space and as low as the 8th
56

Catheters that are inserted into a large vein and are used to administer a variety of drugs.

They manage fluid volume, monitor cardiac pressures, and serve as a conduit for blood analysis and transfusions.

Central Venous lines

57

Variety of clinical applications for central venous lines.

  • Administer variety of drugs
  • Manage fluid volume
  • Serve as a conduit for blood analysis and transfusions
  • Monitor cardiac pressures
58

CVP lines were first developed by __________ and then later by __________.

  • Broviac
  • Hickman
59

Types of CVP lines.

  • Port-A-Cath (chemotherapy)
  • PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter)
  • Swan-Ganz catheter
60

Most common insertion site for CVP lines.

Subclavian vein

61

Incorporates a small electrode at distal end, used to monitor pulmonary arterial pressure. The distal tip will be in one of the two pulmonary arteries. Has balloon on distal end; during pressure monitoring inflates balloon and allows tip to float and wedge in pulmonary artery. Measures pressure and then the balloon deflates.

Pulmonary Arterial (PA) catheter

(Also called Swan-Ganz catheters)