RAD 113 Test 3 Study Guide
Cessation of spontaneous ventilation.
Absence of gas from part or the whole of the lungs as a result of failure of expansion or reabsorption of gas from the alveoli.
The body's "steady state". It is maintained by adaptive responses that promote healthy living.
Reflects degree of heat of the deep tissues of the human body.
Slowness of the heartbeat as evidenced by slowing of the pulse rate to less than 60 beats per minute.
Mechanisms for homeostasis.
- Blood pressure
- Body temperature
- Respiratory rate
- Electrolyte balance
- Body temperature
- Pulse rate
- Respiratory rate
- Mental state
Normal mean of body temperature.
97.7 - 99.5 F
Normal range of respirations for an adult.
12 - 20 breaths per minute
Normal range of respirations for a child.
20 - 30 breaths per minute
Normal pulse rate for adults.
60 - 100 BPM
Normal pulse rate for children.
70 - 120 BPM
Normal blood pressure.
(Systolic - 120 mm Hg, Diastolic - 80 mm Hg)
Plays a role in preservation of heat (shivering) and regulation of heat loss (sweating).
A patient with a fever is said to be __________.
Temperature below 97.7 F.
Oral temperature higher than 99.5 F.
Average oral temp.
Average tympanic temp.
Average temporal temp.
Average rectal temp.
Average axillary temp.
Obtained by placing thermometer high between the upper arm and the torso. It is notoriously inaccurate and time-consuming.
Obtained by placing thermometer in the ear.
Common sites for measuring pulse.
- Radial artery (wrist)
- Brachial artery
- Carotid artery (neck)
Reflects the rapidity of each heart contraction and are recorded as the number of beats per minute (BPM).
During CPR, where is pulse typically measured?
Converts light intensity into oxygen saturation and pulse rate values. Can have it attached to earlobe, temple, nose, or foot.
For infants, a light-emitting probe is placed on big toe.
Pulse measured by listening to the heart with a stethoscope.
Rapidity of the heart action, usually defined as a heart rate greater than 100 beats per minute.
Volume of air inhaled and exhaled during one respiratory cycle.
Measure of force exerted by blood on the arterial walls during contraction and relaxation of the heart.
Pertaining to dilation, or a period of relaxation of the heart, especially of the ventricles.
Pertaining to tightening, or a period of contraction of the heart (myocardium).
Persistently high arterial blood pressure.
Above 140/90 mm Hg
Abnormally low blood pressure; seen in shock but not necessarily indicative of shock
Less than 95/60 mm Hg
Decreased oxygen tension (concentration) in the blood.
Reduction of oxygen supply to the tissue.
Increased amounts of fluid within the pleural cavity, usually the result of inflammation.
Presence of air or gas in the pleural cavity.
Accurate measurement for respiratory assessment.
Two pieces of equipment required when measuring blood pressure.
Blood pressure is measured in __________.
Millimeters of mercury (mm Hg)
Where blood pressure is typically measured.
- Nasal cannula
- Tents and oxyhood
Oxygen delivery devices are designed to operate at a certain number of __________.
Liters per minute (LPM)
Most common device used to deliver low concentrations of oxygen.
Two types of masks that are used for oxygen therapy.
Consists of disposable or permanent plastic box that fits over the head.
Used for pediatric patients requiring oxygen therapy.
Generally used on infants.
Covers the child's bed. It is difficult controlling oxygen concentration because of the frequent openings necessary for childcare which allows oxygen to escape.
Used to manage a variety of respiratory complications.
A radiograph will always be performed to ensure proper placement.
Indications for use of an endotracheal tube.
- Need mechanical ventilation or oxygen delivery
- Inadequate arterial oxygenation
- Parenchymal diseases that impair gas exchange
- Upper-airway obstruction
- Impending gastric acid reflux or aspiration
- Tracheobronchial lavage
Are used to drain the intrapleural space and the mediastinum.
Thoracostomy tubes (chest tubes)
Chest tubes reestablish negative intrapleural pressure in cases of:
- Hemothorax (collection of blood)
- Pleural Effusion
- Empyema (collection of pus in pleural cavity)
Common insertion site for chest tubes.
(Insertion sites vary with the intrapleural substances to be removed)
- Usually inserted in 5th to 6th intercostal space
- Laterally and midaxillary line
- Can be as high as 4th intercostal space and as low as the 8th
Catheters that are inserted into a large vein and are used to administer a variety of drugs.
They manage fluid volume, monitor cardiac pressures, and serve as a conduit for blood analysis and transfusions.
Central Venous lines
Variety of clinical applications for central venous lines.
- Administer variety of drugs
- Manage fluid volume
- Serve as a conduit for blood analysis and transfusions
- Monitor cardiac pressures
CVP lines were first developed by __________ and then later by __________.
Types of CVP lines.
- Port-A-Cath (chemotherapy)
- PICC (peripherally inserted central catheter)
- Swan-Ganz catheter
Most common insertion site for CVP lines.
Incorporates a small electrode at distal end, used to monitor pulmonary arterial pressure. The distal tip will be in one of the two pulmonary arteries. Has balloon on distal end; during pressure monitoring inflates balloon and allows tip to float and wedge in pulmonary artery. Measures pressure and then the balloon deflates.
Pulmonary Arterial (PA) catheter
(Also called Swan-Ganz catheters)