The major ________ of carbohydrates are based on 4 criteria:
-The number of carbons in the chain
-The size of the carbon chain
-The location of the carbonyl group (-CO)
Molecules that have the same empirical or chemical formula but have mirror image structural formulas:
The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth with the enzyme __________.
The enzyme that continues the digestion of carbs in the pancreas:
Maltose, lactose, and sucrose are digested by the intestinal _________.
After the carbs are digested in the intestine, they are transported to the _______ by the portal vein.
Glucose ----> Glycogen (for storage)
Glycogen ----> Glucose (need more usable sugar)
Formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources
Breakdown of glucose for energy. Produces lactate or pyvuvate then CO2 and H2O. Gives off ATP.
Gylcogenesis and Glycolysis _________ serum glucose levels
Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis __________ serum glucose levels
A carbohydrate metabolic pathway; glycolysis of glucose, results in pyruvate or lactate and can occur without oxygen
A carohydrate metabolic pathway; Oxidation of glucose results in ribose and CO2
________ Diabetes is characterized by:
Absolute insulin deficiency
80-90% have autoantibodies to islet cells
________ Diabetes is characterized by:
Insidious onset (Gradual)
Relatively low insulin deficiency
The release of the _________ hormone, glucagon, is stimulated by a decrease in glucose levels.
In order to diagnose Diabetes Mellitus (DM) plasma glucose levels (and 2-hour post-load glucose levels) should be above or equal to
In order to diagnose Diabetes Mellitus (DM) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels should be at or above
-Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia
-Documentation of low plasma glucose at the time patient is experiencing the signs and symptoms
-Alleviation of symptoms the the ingestion of glucose and an increase in plasma glucose
In the Glucose Oxidase method:
Glucose oxidase catalyzes the conversion of glucose to _________ acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide and a reduced chromogen react to create color, which is measured in proportion to glucose concentration
In the Hexokinase method:
Glucose is phosphorylated by hexokinase to form G6P, which is oxidized by G6PDH, which produces ______. The concentration of this causes an increase in absorbance that is proportional to glucose concentration.
Fasting serum and plasma glucose levels are approximately:
The reference range for the Hexokinase method is:
In what form is glucose stored in the liver?
What hormone has the ability to decrease blood glucose concentration?
Which is the primary hyperglycemic hormone?
What test may be performed to assess the average blood glucose level that an individual maintained during the previous 2 to 3 month period?
The position of the hydroxyl group on the carbon next to the bottom CH2OH on a carbon chain
D(Right) or L(Left)
A molecule composed of a glucose attached to a fructose
A molecule composed of a glucose attached to galactose
A molecule composed of two glucose molecules, that cannot be reduced
________ is the plant form of carbohydrate storage
Glycogen is the _______ form of carbohydrate storage
Hexose monophosphate shunt provides _______ that protects the RBCs from oxidative damage.
Which is a monosaccharide?
Sucrose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose
Insulin is produced in the _____ cells of the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans
Glucagon is produced in the _______ cells of the pancreas
Inhibits insulin secretion, stimulates glycogenolysis and lipolysis. Triggered by stress.
A hormome, also known as T4, that promotes glycogenolysis
Growth hormone, ACTH, and Cortisol are all ______________ to insulin.
____________ diabetes is characterized by:
Onset during pregnancy
Babies with severe hypoglycemia after birth
The test for glucose in urine
The gray-top plasma tube is used for measuring ______. It has sodium fluoride in it that inhibits glycolysis.
Insulinoma, Early Type 2 Diabetes, and Ethanol may all result in _____________.
What type of hypoglycemia follows a meal?
What product reacts with the chromogen in the Glucose Oxidase methodology
If a patient's serum glucose is 85 mg/dL, a _____ glucose concentration of 60 mg/dL would be considered considered normal
What is the cut-off value for HbA1C recommended by the American Diabetes Association for adequate control of blood glucose