Clinical Laboratory Chemistry: Chapter 6, Carbohydrates Flashcards


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1

The major ________ of carbohydrates are based on 4 criteria:

-The number of carbons in the chain
-The size of the carbon chain
-The location of the carbonyl group (-CO)
-Stereoisomers

Classes

2

Molecules that have the same empirical or chemical formula but have mirror image structural formulas:

Stereoisomers

3

The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the mouth with the enzyme __________.

Amylase

4

The enzyme that continues the digestion of carbs in the pancreas:

Pancreatic amylase

5

Maltose, lactose, and sucrose are digested by the intestinal _________.

Mucosa

6

After the carbs are digested in the intestine, they are transported to the _______ by the portal vein.

Liver

7

Glucose ----> Glycogen (for storage)

Glycogenesis

8

Glycogen ----> Glucose (need more usable sugar)

Glycogenolysis

9

Formation of glucose from non-carbohydrate sources

Gluconeogenesis

10

Breakdown of glucose for energy. Produces lactate or pyvuvate then CO2 and H2O. Gives off ATP.

Glycolysis

11

Gylcogenesis and Glycolysis _________ serum glucose levels

Decrease

12

Glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis __________ serum glucose levels

Increase

13

A carbohydrate metabolic pathway; glycolysis of glucose, results in pyruvate or lactate and can occur without oxygen

Embden-Meyerhoff pathway

14

A carohydrate metabolic pathway; Oxidation of glucose results in ribose and CO2

Hexose-Monophosphate pathway/shunt

15

________ Diabetes is characterized by:

Abrupt onset
Absolute insulin deficiency
Ketosis-prone
80-90% have autoantibodies to islet cells

Type 1

16

________ Diabetes is characterized by:

Insidious onset (Gradual)
Relatively low insulin deficiency
Non-ketosis prone
Obesity
Glucosuria

Type 2

17

The release of the _________ hormone, glucagon, is stimulated by a decrease in glucose levels.

Pancreatic

18

In order to diagnose Diabetes Mellitus (DM) plasma glucose levels (and 2-hour post-load glucose levels) should be above or equal to

200 mg/dL

19

In order to diagnose Diabetes Mellitus (DM) fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels should be at or above

126 mg/dL

20

________ triad:

-Signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia
-Documentation of low plasma glucose at the time patient is experiencing the signs and symptoms
-Alleviation of symptoms the the ingestion of glucose and an increase in plasma glucose

Whipple's

21

In the Glucose Oxidase method:

Glucose oxidase catalyzes the conversion of glucose to _________ acid and hydrogen peroxide. The hydrogen peroxide and a reduced chromogen react to create color, which is measured in proportion to glucose concentration

Gluconic

22

In the Hexokinase method:

Glucose is phosphorylated by hexokinase to form G6P, which is oxidized by G6PDH, which produces ______. The concentration of this causes an increase in absorbance that is proportional to glucose concentration.

NADH

23

Fasting serum and plasma glucose levels are approximately:

70-99 mg/dL

24

The reference range for the Hexokinase method is:

70-105 mg/dL

25

In what form is glucose stored in the liver?

Glycogen

26

What hormone has the ability to decrease blood glucose concentration?

Insulin

27

Which is the primary hyperglycemic hormone?

Glucagon

28

What test may be performed to assess the average blood glucose level that an individual maintained during the previous 2 to 3 month period?

Glycohemoglobin

29

The position of the hydroxyl group on the carbon next to the bottom CH2OH on a carbon chain

D(Right) or L(Left)

30

A molecule composed of a glucose attached to a fructose

Sucrose

31

A molecule composed of a glucose attached to galactose

Lactose

32

A molecule composed of two glucose molecules, that cannot be reduced

Maltose

33

________ is the plant form of carbohydrate storage

Starch

34

Glycogen is the _______ form of carbohydrate storage

Animal

35

Hexose monophosphate shunt provides _______ that protects the RBCs from oxidative damage.

NADPH

36

Which is a monosaccharide?

Sucrose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose

Fructose

37

Insulin is produced in the _____ cells of the pancreatic Islets of Langerhans

Beta

38

Glucagon is produced in the _______ cells of the pancreas

Alpha

39

Inhibits insulin secretion, stimulates glycogenolysis and lipolysis. Triggered by stress.

Epinephrine/Adrenaline

40

A hormome, also known as T4, that promotes glycogenolysis

Thyroxine

41

Growth hormone, ACTH, and Cortisol are all ______________ to insulin.

Antagonistic

42

____________ diabetes is characterized by:

Onset during pregnancy
Large babies
Babies with severe hypoglycemia after birth

Gestational

43

The test for glucose in urine

Clinitest

44

The gray-top plasma tube is used for measuring ______. It has sodium fluoride in it that inhibits glycolysis.

Glucose

45

Insulinoma, Early Type 2 Diabetes, and Ethanol may all result in _____________.

Hypoglycemia

46

What type of hypoglycemia follows a meal?

Reactive

47

What product reacts with the chromogen in the Glucose Oxidase methodology

Hydrogen Peroxide

48

If a patient's serum glucose is 85 mg/dL, a _____ glucose concentration of 60 mg/dL would be considered considered normal

CSF

49

What is the cut-off value for HbA1C recommended by the American Diabetes Association for adequate control of blood glucose

7%