1861-1865 Civil War

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created 9 years ago by mmc223
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Civil War and foreign policy
updated 9 years ago by mmc223
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1

Major difference b/w conservatives and liberals in the 19th century

Conservatives favored states' rights and a weakening of the union. Liberals favored preserving and strengthening the union

2

Nationalism in the mid-19th century

Hungary vs Austria (unsuccessful)
Poland vs Russia (unsuccessful)
Italy & Germany modern format
Switzerland united cantons
Taipeng rebellion in China
Japan modernizes
US supported Mexico in resisting France
Canadian constitution

3

New technology in mid 19th century

steamships
telegraph
faster and easier trade
railroads
immigration
literacy
mass circulation newspapers

4

The Civil War was inevitable from ____

1820 forward

5

The South's early position on foreign aid

Badly overestimated Europe's need for cotton and underestimated European aversion to slavery

6

Sec'y of State Seward's first idea to prevent Civil War

Union to declare war on Gr Britain and France to force the South to stay with the Union

7

6 notable traits of Lincoln

practical idealist
no diplomatic experience
no knowledge of foreign languages
knew enough to appoint good advisors
expert at managing his advisors
natural born politician

8

US relationship with Russia in 1840s

US suppled Russia with coal, cotton, war supplies and doctors during the Crimean War

9

What country was the Union's first and constant supporter?

Russia

10

Cassius Clay

Kentucky minister to Russia during Civil War

11

Realpolitik

Politics based on power rather than ideals

12

How did Gr Britain and France respond to the Civil War

wanted to favor the South because of the concepts of gentry and honor, and because they feared the growing power of the united United States, but couldn't because of slavery.

13

One of the Union's first responses to secession

Seward's blockade

14

European response to the blockade

questioned its legality
Gr Britain proclaimed neutrality in 1861 but eventually came to favor the Union

15

Outcome of First Bull Run 1861?

Confederate victory, Gr Britain briefly considered backing the South

16

Trent Affair of 1861

US Capt Charles Wilkes took it upon himself to forcibly remove Confederate diplomats Mason and Slidell from the HMS Trent. Finally settled amicably.

17

Describe Southern diplomatic efforts

Too little, too late and too amateurish

18

How did the South respond to British sympathy for the Union?

Embargoed cotton, caused some British mills to close, higher prices and unemployment.

19

Why was the cotton embargo unsuccessful?

Britain had a surplus of cotton already. They also blamed the South more for the troubles than the Union.

20

4 other factors that insured British support for the Union

New sources of cotton from India and Egypt
British needed wheat from the Union
British investments in northern railways and banks
Civil War stimulated some industries that made up for losses from the textile industry

21

Position adopted by both the Union and Gr Britain toward slavery in 1863

Agreed to combat trade and executed a slave trader in that year

22

Lincoln's stance on slavery

personally opposed on moral and humanitarian grounds but did not take a public stand until the Union had achieved some victories

23

Why was Lincoln slow to take a public stand on slavery?

He wanted time to firm up support from the border states

24

How did Gr Britain and France respond to Civil War as it progressed?

In 1862 they experienced enough losses related to cotton that they considered forcing an armistice, leading to two American nations instead of an American superpower.

25

What Civil War battle made Europeans especially nervous?

1862 Union Gen. McClelland failed to capture Richmond

26

What Civil War battle assured Europeans of the sensibility of supporting the Union?

1862 Antietam, Lee retreats back into VA with 5000 dead and 24000 wounded

27

The Emancipation Proclamation was published in ____ and went into effect on _____.

1862, Jan. 1, 1863

28

What well known phrase from the Emancipation Proclamation is used to describe the US?

"The last best hope of earth"

29

What happened when Napoleon III set his sights on Mexico?

installed Archduke Maximillian as ruler.
Favored the Confederacy as a buffer against the US
Benito Juarez led revolt that deposed Maximilian

30

Two battles in 1863 that further confirmed European support for the Union

Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg

31

How did the Confederacy get foreign supplies during the war?

Neutral ships delivered goods to Caribbean, which were then shipped to Mexico and carried overland to the South.

32

How did the Union combat shipments from Mexico to the South?

Capt Charles Wilkes plundered neutral ships
Union claimed goods hauled overland were contraband

33

What was Gr Britain's position on contraband shipments through Mexico?

They protested illegal search and seizure

34

How did Britain aid the South early in the war and how did that cease?

Built small propeller driven ships for the South. In 1863, Union protest caused a halt to the shipbuilding and Britain began seizing British made ships bound for the South.

35

The South's last attempt at attracting foreign aid

Davis sent Kenner of LA to Europe to propose emancipation in return for recognition (unsuccessful)

36

Why did the South have a slim chance in 1864 for attracting foreign aid?

If McClelland had been elected President, he would have opened peace negotiations with the South.

37

One side effect of the 1865 surrender at Appomattox

Europeans sufficiently impressed with the Union to begin withdrawing from the Western Hemisphere

38

An early sign of "cowboy diplomacy"

US Grant predicted that the now stronger US would dictate "justice and right" for all

39

US only major acquisition during Reconstruction

Seward's purchase of Alasks

40

How did Grant respond to France's installation of Maximillian in Mexico?

Prepared for war by sending 50,000 troops to Rio Grande

41

How did the Civil War affect US-Canadian relations

Some Union resentment against Canada for harboring draft dodgers

42

Who were the Fenians?

Irish expatriates who launched raids into Canada, soon curbed by Grant and Hamilton. Britain responded by strengthening Canadian gov't with a constitution.

43

1867 Treaty of Washington

Settlement of claims b/w the US and Canada, and the US recognized Canadian gov't

44

3 events in US relations with Pacific Islanders

1867 US Navy takes Midway Island
1873 US and Hawaiian Reciprocity Treaty
1878 US Treaty with Samoa

45

How did US involvement affect Hawaiians?

rapid development of sugar plantations
islands b/c more dependent on US investment
large influx of Asian field workers
Hawaiians came to own only about 15% of land

46

How did the Cuban rebellion of 1868 contribute to the Spanish American War 30 years later?

Spanish landowners forced to sell out to US investors, US ramps up investment and export of its culture to Cuba

47

What was the 13th Amendment and why was it necessary?

Abolished slavery in Dec 1865.
The Emancipation Proclamation was done as a war power and not as a law, and did not address slavery in the border states.

48

How many Southerners owned slaves?

About 20% owned slaves and about 5% owned more than 20.

49

Jefferson Davis' former position in US gov't

Sec'y of State under Franklin Pierce

50

The Anaconda Plan

US plan to surround and squeeze the South

51

Number of deaths in Civil War

620,000
360,000 Union
260,000 Southern

52

What did Russia do in 1863 to show support for the Union?

Goodwill tour of Union ports by Russian Navy ships

53

Dates of Battle of Gettysburg

July 1-3, 1863

54

How did the Battle of Gettysburg start?

Rumor that little town of Gettysburg had new shoes. Soldiers from both sides converged on the town looking for shoes.

55

Deaths at Gettysburg

51,000

56

Date of surrender of Vicksburg

July 4, 1863

57

How did some border states respond to the War?

Missouri sent soldiers to both sides.