1861-1865 Civil War
Major difference b/w conservatives and liberals in the 19th century
Conservatives favored states' rights and a weakening of the union. Liberals favored preserving and strengthening the union
Nationalism in the mid-19th century
Hungary vs Austria (unsuccessful)
Poland vs Russia (unsuccessful)
Italy & Germany modern format
Switzerland united cantons
Taipeng rebellion in China
US supported Mexico in resisting France
New technology in mid 19th century
faster and easier trade
mass circulation newspapers
The Civil War was inevitable from ____
The South's early position on foreign aid
Badly overestimated Europe's need for cotton and underestimated European aversion to slavery
Sec'y of State Seward's first idea to prevent Civil War
Union to declare war on Gr Britain and France to force the South to stay with the Union
6 notable traits of Lincoln
no diplomatic experience
no knowledge of foreign languages
knew enough to appoint good advisors
expert at managing his advisors
natural born politician
US relationship with Russia in 1840s
US suppled Russia with coal, cotton, war supplies and doctors during the Crimean War
What country was the Union's first and constant supporter?
Kentucky minister to Russia during Civil War
Politics based on power rather than ideals
How did Gr Britain and France respond to the Civil War
wanted to favor the South because of the concepts of gentry and honor, and because they feared the growing power of the united United States, but couldn't because of slavery.
One of the Union's first responses to secession
European response to the blockade
questioned its legality
Gr Britain proclaimed neutrality in 1861 but eventually came to favor the Union
Outcome of First Bull Run 1861?
Confederate victory, Gr Britain briefly considered backing the South
Trent Affair of 1861
US Capt Charles Wilkes took it upon himself to forcibly remove Confederate diplomats Mason and Slidell from the HMS Trent. Finally settled amicably.
Describe Southern diplomatic efforts
Too little, too late and too amateurish
How did the South respond to British sympathy for the Union?
Embargoed cotton, caused some British mills to close, higher prices and unemployment.
Why was the cotton embargo unsuccessful?
Britain had a surplus of cotton already. They also blamed the South more for the troubles than the Union.
4 other factors that insured British support for the Union
New sources of cotton from India and Egypt
British needed wheat from the Union
British investments in northern railways and banks
Civil War stimulated some industries that made up for losses from the textile industry
Position adopted by both the Union and Gr Britain toward slavery in 1863
Agreed to combat trade and executed a slave trader in that year
Lincoln's stance on slavery
personally opposed on moral and humanitarian grounds but did not take a public stand until the Union had achieved some victories
Why was Lincoln slow to take a public stand on slavery?
He wanted time to firm up support from the border states
How did Gr Britain and France respond to Civil War as it progressed?
In 1862 they experienced enough losses related to cotton that they considered forcing an armistice, leading to two American nations instead of an American superpower.
What Civil War battle made Europeans especially nervous?
1862 Union Gen. McClelland failed to capture Richmond
What Civil War battle assured Europeans of the sensibility of supporting the Union?
1862 Antietam, Lee retreats back into VA with 5000 dead and 24000 wounded
The Emancipation Proclamation was published in ____ and went into effect on _____.
1862, Jan. 1, 1863
What well known phrase from the Emancipation Proclamation is used to describe the US?
"The last best hope of earth"
What happened when Napoleon III set his sights on Mexico?
installed Archduke Maximillian as ruler.
Favored the Confederacy as a buffer against the US
Benito Juarez led revolt that deposed Maximilian
Two battles in 1863 that further confirmed European support for the Union
Union victories at Vicksburg and Gettysburg
How did the Confederacy get foreign supplies during the war?
Neutral ships delivered goods to Caribbean, which were then shipped to Mexico and carried overland to the South.
How did the Union combat shipments from Mexico to the South?
Capt Charles Wilkes plundered neutral ships
Union claimed goods hauled overland were contraband
What was Gr Britain's position on contraband shipments through Mexico?
They protested illegal search and seizure
How did Britain aid the South early in the war and how did that cease?
Built small propeller driven ships for the South. In 1863, Union protest caused a halt to the shipbuilding and Britain began seizing British made ships bound for the South.
The South's last attempt at attracting foreign aid
Davis sent Kenner of LA to Europe to propose emancipation in return for recognition (unsuccessful)
Why did the South have a slim chance in 1864 for attracting foreign aid?
If McClelland had been elected President, he would have opened peace negotiations with the South.
One side effect of the 1865 surrender at Appomattox
Europeans sufficiently impressed with the Union to begin withdrawing from the Western Hemisphere
An early sign of "cowboy diplomacy"
US Grant predicted that the now stronger US would dictate "justice and right" for all
US only major acquisition during Reconstruction
Seward's purchase of Alasks
How did Grant respond to France's installation of Maximillian in Mexico?
Prepared for war by sending 50,000 troops to Rio Grande
How did the Civil War affect US-Canadian relations
Some Union resentment against Canada for harboring draft dodgers
Who were the Fenians?
Irish expatriates who launched raids into Canada, soon curbed by Grant and Hamilton. Britain responded by strengthening Canadian gov't with a constitution.
1867 Treaty of Washington
Settlement of claims b/w the US and Canada, and the US recognized Canadian gov't
3 events in US relations with Pacific Islanders
1867 US Navy takes Midway Island
1873 US and Hawaiian Reciprocity Treaty
1878 US Treaty with Samoa
How did US involvement affect Hawaiians?
rapid development of sugar plantations
islands b/c more dependent on US investment
large influx of Asian field workers
Hawaiians came to own only about 15% of land
How did the Cuban rebellion of 1868 contribute to the Spanish American War 30 years later?
Spanish landowners forced to sell out to US investors, US ramps up investment and export of its culture to Cuba
What was the 13th Amendment and why was it necessary?
Abolished slavery in Dec 1865.
The Emancipation Proclamation was done as a war power and not as a law, and did not address slavery in the border states.
How many Southerners owned slaves?
About 20% owned slaves and about 5% owned more than 20.
Jefferson Davis' former position in US gov't
Sec'y of State under Franklin Pierce
The Anaconda Plan
US plan to surround and squeeze the South
Number of deaths in Civil War
What did Russia do in 1863 to show support for the Union?
Goodwill tour of Union ports by Russian Navy ships
Dates of Battle of Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863
How did the Battle of Gettysburg start?
Rumor that little town of Gettysburg had new shoes. Soldiers from both sides converged on the town looking for shoes.
Deaths at Gettysburg
Date of surrender of Vicksburg
July 4, 1863
How did some border states respond to the War?
Missouri sent soldiers to both sides.