Chapter 31

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1

Characteristics of sea stars

-adults exhibit radial symmetry
-begin with degestion of prey inside the prey's shell
-reproduction is both sexual and asexual
-locomotion depends on tube feet and a water vascular system

2

Characeteris of Chordota Phylum

- dorsal supporting rod (notochord)
- dorsal tubular nerve cord
- postonal tail
- pharyngeal pouches

3

The potential fate of embryonic pharyngeal pouches in vertrebrates

pouches may become gills, auditory tubules, tonsils, or thymus gland

4

General characteristics of vertebrates

-large true coelom, complete digestive tract, bilateral symmetry
- strong jointed endoskeleton
- segmened vertebral column composd of vertebrae
- closed circulatory system.
- high degree of cephalization with increase brainsize
-two pairs of appendages
- efficient respiration and excretion

5

structure that the jaw evolved from

gill arches

6

characteristics of catilaginous fish such as sharks

- skeleton comprised of cartilage
- lack gill covers
- three we developed senses
1. ability to sense electric currents in the water.
2. lateral line system
3. keen sense of smell
- poor sense of vision

7

the amphibians evolved from

lobe-finned fish

8

features of amphibians

-eggs hatch as gilled larvae, metamorphosis from larva into adult, and emerge from the water as adults that breathe air and live on land
- four limbs
- three chambered heart, 1 ventricle and 2 atria.
- moist skin for gas exchange
- ectothermic- depend on the environment to maintain body temperature

9

The vertebrae which the amniotic egg first appeared and this groups body temperature

repritles

10

the characteristics of birds

- feathers are modified scales. legs of birds have scales and claws
-amniotic egg with a hard shell
- forelimbs are modified as wings with feathers
-lightweight bones
-large sternum for attachment of lifght muscles
- excellent sense of vision
- air sacs allow one way flow of air through lungs to increase the efficiency of breathing

11

the characteristics of mammals

- chief characteristics are body hair and milk-producing mammary glands
- also typically give live birth
- have large brains with enlarged cerebral hemispheres

12

Which vertebrae are endothermic

both birs and mammals

13

The role of the placenta

-allows for nutriends and waste exchange with the fetus
- nurture fetus fora long period of development
- problem is that it can sometimes cause mothers body to immunologically reject the fetus.