Chapter 30

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1

Characteristics of animals

-heterotrophic and usually ingest food followed by digestion in a central cavity
-locomotion by mean of muscles
-multicellular eukarotes, high degree of cel specialization
-adult is usually diploid and produces gametes by meiosis.
-reproduction usually sexual with embryo undergoing developmental stages.

2

No particular symmetry

Asymmetrical

3

Circular organization can be bisected in many planes to produce mirror images, some sessile.

Radial Symmetry

4

Define right and left halves. only a cut down the midline will produce mirror images.

Bilateral

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no true tissues

cellular level

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have ectoderm and endoderm germ tissue layers

tissue level

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have ectroderm, endoderm, and mesoderm gym tissue layers

Organ level

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The fate of the blastopore in deutrosomes

embryos the first opening (blastopore) becomes the anus

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the fate of the blastopore in protosome

embryos the first opening (blastopore) becomes the mouth

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Phyla are deuterosomes

echinoderms and chrodates

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Phyla are Protostomes

flat worms, molluscs, amelids, roundworms, and arthropods.

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Characteristics of Sponges

- body with many pores
- sessile filter feeders
- asexual and sexual reproduction
- have the cellular level of organization

13

How a sponge feeds

-flagella of collar cells beat to move water through sponge.
-current of water moves in through pores and out through osculum
- food is filtered and engulfed by collar cells, then amoeboid cells digest it and transport its nutrient.

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Symmetry of sponges

asymmetrical

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symmetry of cnidarians

radial symmetry

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symmetry of flatworms

bilaterial symmetry

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Characterisics of flatworms and parasitic flatworms

- no coelem
- three germ layers and organ level of organism
- can be free living or parasitic
- lack respiratory and circulatory systems but flt body allows for sufficient gas exchange
- parasitic flatworms mainly have a very well developed reproductive system
- income digestive tract - one one opening, mouth also functions as the anus.

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body cavity is completely lined with mesoderm germ tissue

a true coelom

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advantages of have a true coelem

-free body movement
-space for development of complex organs
- greater surface area for absorption of nutrients
- protection of internal organs

20

Roles of visceral mass, foot, and mantle in molluscs

visceral mass- includes most organs (ex. kidneys, stomach).
foot- muscular portion usually used for locomotion
mantle- secretes a shell

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Distinguish between class of molluscs

Gastropods
Cephalopods
Bivalves

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Gastropods

-foot is ventral (near stomach) flattened, and used by locomotion.
gave a spiral shell

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Cephalopods

foot have evolved into funnel or siphon near the head.

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Bivalves

-two part hinged shell
-the hatchet shaped foot is used to burrown

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Characteristics of Annelids

-segmentation
- true coelem
-complete digestive tract
-nervous system consist of brain, ventral nerve cord, and ganglia in each segment

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Characteristcs of rounds worms

- complete digestive tract
- pseudocoelem- body cavit that is not completely lined with mesoderm

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Most diverse phylum

arthropods

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Exoskeleton

- protects them
- prevents them from drying out
- provide a place for muscle attachment to move the body.
- must molt to grow

29

Crustaceans

have a harder, more calcifid shell

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Insects

Three body regions: head, throax, and abdomens
three pairs of legs

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Arachnids

have chelicerai (fang-like) mouthparts