Chapter 28

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1

Organisms that are individually too small to be seen by the naked eye

microbes

2

The cell wall that makes up bacteria

Peptidoglycan

3

Determines the staining characteristics of a cell wall in bacteria

Peptidoglycan

4

Bacteria reproduces by

binary fission, asexual reproduction in which a bacterial cell replicates its genomea nd divides in half.

5

The diversity of bacterial metabolism

- some use oxygen to break down food for energy
- heterotrophic
-chemoautotroughs and obtain energy from hydrogen sulfie, ammonia, or iron
- photosynthetic.

6

Bacterial Disease in humans

-strep throat
-anthrax
-tubercolosis
-botulism

7

Virus in Humans

HIV

8

Problems associated with antibiotic therapy

-allergic reactions
-killing off of beneficial bacteria
-bacterial resistance to antibiotics

9

Algae is classified into the kingdom

Kingdom Protista

10

The kingdom that classifys bread mold, cup fungi, and mushrooms is

Fungus

11

Mutualistic relationship between fungi and cyanobacteria or green algae

Lichen

12

-A controversial as to wherther or not viruses are living things.
-they are noncellular chemical complexes of a nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) protected by a protein

Virus

13

Characteristics of a virus

- not composed of cells
- they do not respond to stimuli and cannot metabolize when they are outside of a host cell.
- they do have genetic material which can mutate, so the can evolve.

14

Different types of genetic material found in viruses

nucleic acid core composed of DNA or RNA which contains the viral genes.

15

The role and occurence of the capsid and the envelope, and where the envelope is derived from

-Outer covering called a capsid which is comprised of preteins and protects the core.
- may be surrounded by a lipid envelope which is derived from the host cell's plasmas membrane

16

the parasitic nature of viruses

viruses are parasites and have to invade a host cell to reproduce

17

The steps in HIV infection

Retroviruses replication
viral RNA is converted into DNA
viral DNA is then spliced into host cell's chromosome

18

Naked RNA molecules which do not have a preotein coat
infect plant cells and cause diseases

Viroids

19

infectious proteins that cause degenerative disease of the nervous system

Prions