Organisms that are individually too small to be seen by the naked eye
The cell wall that makes up bacteria
Determines the staining characteristics of a cell wall in bacteria
Bacteria reproduces by
binary fission, asexual reproduction in which a bacterial cell replicates its genomea nd divides in half.
The diversity of bacterial metabolism
- some use oxygen to break down food for energy
-chemoautotroughs and obtain energy from hydrogen sulfie, ammonia, or iron
Bacterial Disease in humans
Virus in Humans
Problems associated with antibiotic therapy
-killing off of beneficial bacteria
-bacterial resistance to antibiotics
Algae is classified into the kingdom
The kingdom that classifys bread mold, cup fungi, and mushrooms is
Mutualistic relationship between fungi and cyanobacteria or green algae
-A controversial as to wherther or not viruses are living things.
-they are noncellular chemical complexes of a nucleic acid (RNA or DNA) protected by a protein
Characteristics of a virus
- not composed of cells
- they do not respond to stimuli and cannot metabolize when they are outside of a host cell.
- they do have genetic material which can mutate, so the can evolve.
Different types of genetic material found in viruses
nucleic acid core composed of DNA or RNA which contains the viral genes.
The role and occurence of the capsid and the envelope, and where the envelope is derived from
-Outer covering called a capsid which is comprised of preteins and protects the core.
- may be surrounded by a lipid envelope which is derived from the host cell's plasmas membrane
the parasitic nature of viruses
viruses are parasites and have to invade a host cell to reproduce
The steps in HIV infection
viral RNA is converted into DNA
viral DNA is then spliced into host cell's chromosome
Naked RNA molecules which do not have a preotein coat
infect plant cells and cause diseases
infectious proteins that cause degenerative disease of the nervous system