Endocrine Hormones and Their Functions
Control the release of anterior pituitary hormones.
ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)
Promotes water reabsorption in kidney tubules (fluid retention); at high concentration, stimulates constriction of blood vessels which increases blood pressure.
Diabetes Insipidus - underproduction of ADH
Uterine muscle contraction; milk ejection from mammary glands.
Growth Hormone (GH)
Promotes growth of all body tissues; Causes an increase in size/height to occur in youth before the closure of the epiphyses of long bones.
Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)
Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)
Responsible for stimulating the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system to release epi and norepi; stimulates adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens.
Stimulates production of milk in the breasts.
Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)
Stimulates development of eggs in the ovaries and develpment ofsperm in the testes; stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogen
Classified as a gonadotropin
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Initiates ovulation, sex hormone for both male and female (testosterone/progesterone), stiluates interstitial cells in the testes to develp and secrete testosterone.
Classifed as a gonadtotropin
Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine (T4 and T3)
Regulate metabollic rate; increase metabollic rate influencing mental and physical activities.
Needed for adequate growth.
Must have iodine to produce.
Released by the thyroid; lowers amount of calcium by acting on bone to inhibit breakdown.
Parathryoid Hormone (PTH)
Regulate exchange of calcium between blood and bones.
Increases calcium level in the blood.
*Works with calcitrol to regulate calcium levels.
Brain and heart cells don't function normally
May become mentally disturbed or heart may stop beating
Nerve cells become overactive bombarding muscles with impulses producing spasms.
Also called dihydroxycholescalciferol
An active form of Vitamin D.
Increases intestinal absorption of calcium.
Works closely with PTH.
Released by the Adrenal Medulla in response to stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system - "fight or flight" emergency situations.
Muscles contract in walls of arterioles, meaning increased HR and BP
Converts glycogen stored in liver to glucose, conducting more energy
Increases metabollic rate by body cells
Dilates bronchioles for better breathing
Found in the middle zone of the Adrenal Cortex
Help maintain normal glucose concentration (Influences the synthesis of glucose)
Promotes breakdown of tissue protein to amino acids
Increases in stresss
Depresses the immune response / Decreases inflammatory response
Found in the outer zone of the Adrenal Cortex.
Important in regulating electrolyte balance
Increase amount of sodium and decrease the amount of potassium in the blood by causing reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubules.
Secreted by beta cells of islets
Aids in lowering blood glucose levels; promotes cellular uptake of amino acids.
Stimulates manafacturing of aminos to proteins.
Secreted by alpha cells of islets
Speeds up liver glycogenolysis (liver storage of glycogen turned into glucose and released into the blood stream, there raising blood glucose levels)
Diabetes Mellitus Type 1
Body doesn't secrete enough insulin
Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
Decreased amount of insulin production
Inability of body to respond or use insuline produced
Promotes growth and development of sex organs (testes, penis)
Development of secondary sex characteristics
Stimulates sperm cell maturation
Found in Ovarian Follicles
Stimulates grwoth of uterine tubes and uterus; developing secondary sex organs (breasts), stimulate development of ovarian follicles
Found in corpus luteum
Aids mainting pregnancy
Mammary gland secretory tissue development
Assists in maturation of certain WBC's known as T-Cells or T-Lymphocytes
Influences cellular immunity
Regulates sexual development (may delay puberty)
Daily cycles in response to the amount of light in environment
Controls sleep-wake cycles
Stimulates RBC procudtion in bone marrow
Produced with decreased O2 in the blood
Found in the kidneys
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)
Increases in response to increased filling of blood in the heart
Increases loss of sodium from the kidneys and lowers BP
Antagonist of aldosterone
Leptin or Ghrelin
Regulates how fat is metabolized by the body
Too many hormones can lead to.....
enlargement of the thyroid gland
underactivity of the adrenal cortex
excess secretion of cortisol
excess growth hormone in an adult