Endocrine Hormones and Their Functions

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 3 years ago by cwhitby
86 views
Newbern PN A&P
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Releasing Hormones

Control the release of anterior pituitary hormones.

2

ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone)

Promotes water reabsorption in kidney tubules (fluid retention); at high concentration, stimulates constriction of blood vessels which increases blood pressure.

Diabetes Insipidus - underproduction of ADH

3

Oxytocin

Uterine muscle contraction; milk ejection from mammary glands.

4

Growth Hormone (GH)

Somatropin

Promotes growth of all body tissues; Causes an increase in size/height to occur in youth before the closure of the epiphyses of long bones.

5

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH)

Thyrotropin

Stimulates the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones

6

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH)

Responsible for stimulating the sympathetic portion of the autonomic nervous system to release epi and norepi; stimulates adrenal cortex to produce glucocorticoids (cortisol) and androgens.

7

Prolactin (PRL)

Stimulates production of milk in the breasts.

8

Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH)

Stimulates development of eggs in the ovaries and develpment ofsperm in the testes; stimulates follicle cells to secrete estrogen

Classified as a gonadotropin

9

Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

Initiates ovulation, sex hormone for both male and female (testosterone/progesterone), stiluates interstitial cells in the testes to develp and secrete testosterone.

Classifed as a gonadtotropin

10

Thyroxine and Triiodothyronine (T4 and T3)

Regulate metabollic rate; increase metabollic rate influencing mental and physical activities.

Needed for adequate growth.

Must have iodine to produce.

11

Calcitonin

Released by the thyroid; lowers amount of calcium by acting on bone to inhibit breakdown.

12

Parathryoid Hormone (PTH)

Regulate exchange of calcium between blood and bones.

Increases calcium level in the blood.

*Works with calcitrol to regulate calcium levels.

13

Hypercalcemia

Brain and heart cells don't function normally

May become mentally disturbed or heart may stop beating

14

Hypocalcemia

Nerve cells become overactive bombarding muscles with impulses producing spasms.

15

Calcitrol

Also called dihydroxycholescalciferol

An active form of Vitamin D.

Increases intestinal absorption of calcium.

Works closely with PTH.

16

Epinephrine

Released by the Adrenal Medulla in response to stimulation by the sympathetic nervous system - "fight or flight" emergency situations.

Muscles contract in walls of arterioles, meaning increased HR and BP

Converts glycogen stored in liver to glucose, conducting more energy

Increases metabollic rate by body cells

Dilates bronchioles for better breathing

17

Cortisol (Glucocorticoids)

Found in the middle zone of the Adrenal Cortex

Help maintain normal glucose concentration (Influences the synthesis of glucose)

Promotes breakdown of tissue protein to amino acids

Increases in stresss

Depresses the immune response / Decreases inflammatory response

18

Aldosterone

Found in the outer zone of the Adrenal Cortex.

Important in regulating electrolyte balance

Increase amount of sodium and decrease the amount of potassium in the blood by causing reabsorption of sodium by the renal tubules.

19

Insulin

Secreted by beta cells of islets

Aids in lowering blood glucose levels; promotes cellular uptake of amino acids.

Stimulates manafacturing of aminos to proteins.

20

Glucagon

Secreted by alpha cells of islets

Speeds up liver glycogenolysis (liver storage of glycogen turned into glucose and released into the blood stream, there raising blood glucose levels)

21

Diabetes Mellitus Type 1

Body doesn't secrete enough insulin

22

Diabetes Mellitus Type 2

Decreased amount of insulin production

Inability of body to respond or use insuline produced

23

Testosterone

Promotes growth and development of sex organs (testes, penis)

Development of secondary sex characteristics

Muscalizing Hormone

Stimulates sperm cell maturation

24

Estrogen

Found in Ovarian Follicles

Feminizing Hormone

Stimulates grwoth of uterine tubes and uterus; developing secondary sex organs (breasts), stimulate development of ovarian follicles

25

Progesterone

Found in corpus luteum

Aids mainting pregnancy

Mammary gland secretory tissue development

26

Thymosin

Assists in maturation of certain WBC's known as T-Cells or T-Lymphocytes

Influences cellular immunity

27

Melatonin

Regulates mood

Regulates sexual development (may delay puberty)

Daily cycles in response to the amount of light in environment

Controls sleep-wake cycles

28

Erythropoietin

Stimulates RBC procudtion in bone marrow

Produced with decreased O2 in the blood

Found in the kidneys

29

Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (ANP)

Increases in response to increased filling of blood in the heart

Increases loss of sodium from the kidneys and lowers BP

Antagonist of aldosterone

30

Leptin or Ghrelin

Regulates how fat is metabolized by the body

Stimulates hunger

31

Too many hormones can lead to.....

HTN

Heart disease

Ulcers

Back pain

Headaches

32

Goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland

33

Addison's Disease

underactivity of the adrenal cortex

34

Cushing's Disease

excess secretion of cortisol

35

Acromegaly

excess growth hormone in an adult