RAD 111 Test 2 Study Guide
Three areas of learning education as a medical imaging professional will include.
Establishes the foundation of competency-based education, which incorporates input from our professional bodies supporting quality patient care.
The professional organization that provides a curriculum articulating educational guidelines to ensure that entry level radiographers posses the necessary skills and knowledge for practice.
American Society of Radiologic Technologists (ASRT)
The accrediting body for the profession that establishes standards for educational programs incorporating the ASRT curriculum.
Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology JRCERT
The professional certifying agency which identifies the minimum didactic and clinical competency requirements for certification.
American Registry for Radiology Technology
According to __________, the program (Clinical Education) is to provide a well-structured competency-based curriculum that prepares students to practice in the professional discipline.
Standards for an Accredited Educational Program in Radiography
Developed Standards for an Accredited Educational Program in Radiography.
How would you be eligible for participation in the American Registry of Radiologic Technologists radiographic examination?
- Clinical competence must be demonstrated and completed, performed independently, consistently, and effectively
Component of the radiography curriculum that includes procedures and activities that occur in the clinical educational settings.
What does clinical experiences include?
One-on-one direct patient contact
During clinical experiences, interactions with _________, __________, __________, and __________ occur.
- Emergency patients
- Specialty patients of all ages
Component of the radiography curriculum that deals with informational and instructional activities related to radiography.
Settings in which didactic activities occur.
- Instructional media viewing area
- Learning resource center
Instructional (didactic) activity should be well planned with __________, __________, and __________ provided for the students.
- Documented goals
- Learning activities
Setting that serves as a bridge to connect classroom with clinical activities.
What foundation of knowledge is being introduced to students within the didactic and laboratory areas?
Is exemplified in the clinical education component of radiography education with the students recalling prior knowledge learned and using this knowledge in performing radiographic procedures to develop both the skills and the confidence to work with a wide variety of patients.
The principle of transfer of learning
Area of learning (domain) that includes behaviors requiring various levels of thought: knowledge, understanding, reason, and judgment.
Area of learning (domain) that includes behaviors involving physical actions, neuromuscular manipulations, and coordination.
Area of learning (domain) that includes behaviors guided by feelings and emotions that are influenced by an individual's interests, attitudes, values, and beliefs.
As your education evolves, emphasis in learning will shift from the classroom to the ___________.
Purpose is to provide an environment in which the student can transfer learning from the didactic and lab settings to real-world patient-care experiences. Permits one-on-one, direct patient contact.
Learning is a __________.
The learning process is based on __________, __________, and __________.
- Performance objectives
- Learning observed by way of competencies
- Learning outcomes
One element of the major categories of learning. Is a description of an observable student behavior and must be concise, measurable, and achievable.
The observable, successful achievement of the performance objectives.
A more recent educational trend that is directed toward a learner focus. Identify what the student should be able to achieve.
Must be performed independently, consistently, and effectively.
Used for program development and evaluation. Includes criteria for program accountability and provides for the appropriate supervision of students. It was adopted in 1996 and later revised in 2013 by JRCERT.
Individuals who work together to assist the student in understanding and accomplishing the goals and objectives of the program.
- Program director
- Didactic faculty
- Clinical coordinator
- Clinical faculty
- Clinical staff
Works full time in organizing, administering, and assessing the radiography program. Responsible for the didactic and clinical effectiveness of the program.
Works closely with the program director in ensuring the program effectiveness through a regular schedule of coordination, instruction, and evaluation. Will be among the program's officials if a program has 5 or more education settings or more than 30 students enrolled in the clinical component.
Has the opportunity to influence the professional development of the radiography student in a direct manner. Works with the student in one-on-one observation, instruction, and evaluation. They should also possess the appropriate professional credentials.
Responsible for teaching general education, professional, and technical courses within the radiography curriculum. They are individually qualified to teach the appropriate course work. Work closely with the program director.
Assist the clinical instructor in one-on-one observation and instruction of radiography students.
Phases of clinical learning.
Phase of the educational experience that is extensive during the early portion of the program. It tapers off as the new student gains confidence and can effectively integrate the appropriate cognitive, psychomotor, and affective behaviors. (The student's eyes are open to anything and everything that goes on)
Phase in which the student begins aiding and supporting the radiographer in the performance of the diagnostic procedure.
Phase in which the student should accurately demonstrate all tasks included in the entire procedure at the level of skill determined by the faculty.
Should be provided by the clinical instructor and should provide effective nonjudgmental descriptive information of how clinical performance could be improved.
Defines the purpose of the hospital's existence and provides guidance in its community service.
Hospital Mission Statement
What the governance of a hospital begins with.
Board of directors (governing board)
Is accountable to the hospital board.
Chief Executive Officer (CEO)
Who the hospital divisions and departments are accountable to.
The formal organized structure of physicians within a hospital with authorized privileges, bylaws, elected officers, committees, and organized activities.
Are interrelated and are sometimes directly dependent on one another. Organized to provide care and clinical support services to its patients and clients.
Responsible for recruitment, retention, benefits, and compensation of all employees who work in the hospital.
Human resources department
Subdepartments of radiology.
- Diagnostic radiography
- Ultrasound (US)
- Nuclear medicine (NM)
- Positron emission tomography (PET)
- Computed tomography (CT)
- Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
- Interventional radiology (IR) (special procedures)
Varies depending on size and scope, often consists of subdepartments, requires support services, and is led by an Administrative Director.
Typically reports directly to upper hospital administration, requires strong business management skills, and works closely with the Medical Director of Radiology. Not necessarily a radiologic technologist.
Administrative Director of Radiology
Principle responsibility is for overseeing the quality of patient care, works closely with the Administrative Director, and may also serve as the Department Chair. Typically a physician.
Responsible for staffing, planning, educating, supervising, organizing, coordinating, communicating, maintaining safety, and minimizing hazards in the workplace.
Administrative Director of Radiology
Program established in order to elevate the professionalism of radiology administrators. Identifies those who have proven skills and knowledge in medical imaging management.
Certified Radiology Administrator (CRA)
Established the Certified Radiology Administrator (CRA) in 2002.
Radiology Administration Certification Commission
The primary functions of management.
- Organizing and facilitating
Important for management functions.
Key management traits
- Leadership skills
- "Coaching" staff
Functions of management are evolving from the traditional roles of directing and controlling employees to leading, coaching, and supporting employees. The influence for this change comes from the movement toward __________, __________, or __________.
- Continuous quality improvement (CQI)
- Total quality management (TQM)
- Performance improvement (PI)
The primary management function that charts a course of action for the future that enables coordinated and consistent fulfillment of goals and objectives.
The development of a structure or framework that identifies how people do their work.
Describes what management does in the way of helping, assisting, and expediting processes.
Involves getting the right people to do the work and developing their abilities so they can do the work better.
Involves the stimulation of effort needed to perform the required work.
Defines performance standards or guidelines used to measure progress toward the goals of the organization.
Process by which the manager achieves orderly group activities and unity of effort by workers who are fully aware of a common purpose.
Critical areas in which optimal coordination requires superior skills.
The four steps the controlling process can be described in.
- Establishing methods of achieving planned goals and objectives
- Defining standards and measures to give feedback on progress
- Measuring and reporting progress
- Taking action to correct variations from the expected standards
Would include standards that govern functions such as equipment operation (quality control), radiation control, and specific routines for radiographic positioning and exposure.
An example of an involuntary regulating activity tied to reimbursement.
Accreditation of mammography services for payment by Medicare and other insurance providers
Involves organizing and managing resources for a project to be carried out within a specified period with defined costs and expected outcomes.
List of external regulatory agencies.
- The Joint Commission (TJC)
- Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
- Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
- Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
- American College of Radiology (ACR)
- State Health Departments
Regulates the operation of a radiology department.
- External regulatory agencies
- Governing body of the hospital
Regulates the quality and safety of care provided to patients and the way a health care organization is supervised and operated.
The Joint Commission (TJC)
State regulatory agencies that define rules to protect the health and safety of the patients or clients of a health care facility or provider.
State Health Departments
A certificate of authority or permission granted by a state review board allowing a hospital or other health care entity to construct new facilities, develop new services, or purchase expensive equipment or technologies.
Certificate of Need (CON)
Radiation-regulating agency for control of equipment and technologists.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Federal agency that establishes standards for safety in the workplace.
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)
Regulate operations in a hospital. Vary from hospital to hospital and are typically committee based.
Internal regulatory agencies
List of internal regulatory groups.
- Safety Committee
- Infection Control Committee
- Radiation Safety Committee
- Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
- Risk Management and Corporate Compliance
- Picture Archive and Communications Systems (PACs)
Required for hospitals by TJC. Directs education of employees on safety policies and procedures and ensures safe operation of the facility for patients and employees.
Conducts epidemiologic studies for patient and employee protection.
Infection Control Committee
Regulates hospital activities for radiation safety and nuclear medicine activities. Required by the NRC and TJC.
Radiation Safety Committee
Required committee of hospital medical staff responsible for reviewing drugs and their use in the hospital.
Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee
Developed to manage and control the amount of legal and financial risk to the organization and ensure that the hospital continues to remain in good standing with its reputation in the community. Goal is to keep the organization, employees, and patients free from any risks that may hinder quality of care and to guarantee the safety of all customers.
Risk Management and Corporate Compliance
Became widely accepted as a digital alternative to film-screen imaging devices. Defined as a system for acquiring, archiving, interpreting, and distributing digital images throughout a health system enterprise.
Picture Archive and Communications Systems
Desirable employee characteristics.
- Strong technical skills
- Excellent teamwork skills
- Customer-service oriented
- Good communication skills with patients, colleagues, and physicians
- Professional attitude
- Good work ethic