AAP Lab 1 Ex: 1, 2, 3 Drost/Wiley

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created 3 years ago by Jase_H
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Sowela
updated 3 years ago by Jase_H
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College: Second year
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Dorsal (back) Body Cavity (cavities)

Cranial Cavity, Vertebral Cavity

Organs: Brain, Spinal Cord

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Thoracic Cavity (cavities)

Pleural Cavity, Pericardial Cavity

Organs: heart, lungs

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Ventral Body Cavity (cavities)

Thoracic Cavity, Abdominopelvic Cavity

Organs: heart, lungs, digestive organs, bladder, reproductive organs, rectum

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Abdominal Cavity (organs)

Digestive Organs

stomach, small and large intestine, rectum (gallbladder, liver, pancreas)

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Pelvic Cavity (organs)

Urinary bladder, Reproductive Organs, Rectum

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List Four Body Cavities

1) Dorsal- brain and spinal cord

2) Thoracic- heart and lungs

3) Abdominal- digestive, kidneys

4) Pelvic- bladder, reproductive organs

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Name All the Body Cavities

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List Two Major Body Cavities

Dorsal and Ventral

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List the Body's two main REGIONS

1) Axial- head, neck, trunk

2) Appendicular- limbs

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Axial Region

Head, Neck, Trunk

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Name the Regions of the Human Body

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Superior/ Inferior

aka _________/__________

Above/ Below

-Cephalad/ Caudal

Ex: nose SUPERIOR mouth, abs INFERIOR chest

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Anterior/ Posterior

Front/ Back

-structure most forward: face, chest, abs

-structure farther back: spine

Ex: spine POSTERIOR heart

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Medial/ Lateral

Toward the Midline/ Away from Midline

Ex: sternum MEDIAL ribs, ear LATERAL nose

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(Cephalad/Caudal)

aka ________/_________

Toward the Head/ Toward the Tail

-Superior, Inferior

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(Ventral/ Dorsal)

aka ________/_________

Belly Side/ Backside

-Anterior/ Posterior

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Proximal/ Distal

Nearer Point of Attachment/ Farther from Point of Attachment

Ex: fingers DISTAL elbows, knee PROXIMAL toes

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Superficial/ Deep

aka________/_________

Toward or at the Body's Surface/ Away from the Body's Surface

-External/ Internal

Ex: skin SUPERFICIAL skeletal muscles, lungs DEEP ribs

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Section

Cut, Slice of Tissue

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Plane

A hypothetical line used to transect the human body

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Median (Midsagittal) Plane

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Divides Body into LEFT and RIGHT

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Frontal (Coronal) Plane

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Divides Body into FRONT and BACK

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Transverse (Cross Section) Plane

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Divides Body into TOP and BOTTOM

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Covering Walls of Ventral Cavity and Outer Surface of Organs

Serosa or Serous Membrane

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Lining of the Cavity Walls (types of membranes)

Parietal Serosa

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Covering External Surface of the Organs within the Cavity (types of membranes)

Visceral Serosa

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Lining the Abdominal Cavity and Covering its Organs (types of membranes)

Peritoneum

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Enclosing the Lungs (types of membranes)

Pleura

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Enclosing the Heart (types of membranes)

Pericardium

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Serosa Membranes around the Heart and Lungs

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Lungs: Pleura, Heart: Pericardium

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List Organs in Left Upper QUADRANT

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Stomach, Spleen, Kidney, Duodenum, Pancreas, Descending Colon

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List Organs in Right Upper QUADRANT

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Liver, Gallbladder, Kidney, Transverse & Ascending Colon

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List Organs in Left Lower QUADRANT

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Small Intestine, Rectum, Bladder, Anus

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List Organs in Right Lower QUADRANT

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Cecum, Appendix, Small Intestine, Rectum, Bladder, Anus

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How many Abdominopelvic REGIONS do we have?

9

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List all the LEFT Abominopelvic REGIONS

1) Left Hypochondriac

2) Left Lateral (lumbar)

3) Left Inguinal (iliac)

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List all the MIDDLE Abdominopelvic REGIONS

1) Epigastric

2) Umbilical

3) Pubic (hypogastric)

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List all the RIGHT Abdominopelvic REGIONS

1) Right Hypochondriac

2) Right Lateral (lumbar)

3) Right Inguinal (iliac)

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Label the Organs in each Abominopelvic Region

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Basic Unit of Life

Cell

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A group of cells that are similar in structure and function

Tissue

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List the 4 Primary Tissue Types

Epithelial, Muscular, Nervous, Connective

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A group of organs that act together to perform a particular body function

Organ System

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A structure that is composed of two or more tissues that performs a specific function for the body

Organ

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How many Organ Systems are there?

11 Organ Systems

Cardiovascular, Digestive, Endocrine, Integumentary, Lymphatic, Muscular, Nervous, Reproductive, Respiratory, Skeletal, Urinary

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Integumentary System (organs)

skin, hair, nails, cutaneous sense organs, glands

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Integumentary System (function)

-Protects deeper organs from mechanical, chemical, and bacterial injury, and from drying out

-Excretes salt and urea

-Aids in regulations of body temperature

-Produces vitamin D

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Skeletal System (organs)

bones, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, joints

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Skeletal System (function)

-Body support and protection from internal organs

-Provides levers for muscular action

-Cavities provide a site for blood cell formation

-Bones store minerals

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Muscular System (function)

-Primary function is to contract or shorten, in doing so, skeletal muscles allow locomotion (running, etc), grasping and manipulation of the environment, and facial expressions

-Generates heat

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Muscular System (organs)

muscles attached to the skeleton

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Nervous System (organs)

brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory receptors

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Nervous System (function)

-Allows body to detect changes in its internal and external environment and to respond by activating appropriate muscles or glands

-helps maintain homeostasis of the body via rapid transmission of electrical signals

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Endocrine System (organs)

pituitary, thymus, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal glands, ovaries, testes, pancreas

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Endocrine System (function)

-Helps maintain homeostasis, promotes growth and development, produces chemical messengers called hormones that travel in the blood to exert their effects on various target organs of the body

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Cardiovascular System (organs)

heart, blood vessels

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Cardiovascular System (function)

-Primarily a transport system that carries blood containing oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, wastes, ions, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made, blood is propelled through the blood vessels by the pumping of the heart

-Antibodies and other protein molecules in blood protect the body

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Lymphatic System (organs)

lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, spleen, thymus

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Lymphatic System (function)

-Picks up fluid leaked from the blood vessels and returns it to the blood

-Cleanses blood of pathogens and other debris

-Houses lymphocytes that act via the immune response to protect the body from foreign substances

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Respiratory System (organs)

nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs

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Respiratory System (function)

-Keeps the blood continuously supplied with oxygen while removing carbon dioxide

-Contributes to the acid-base balance of the blood

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Digestive System (organs)

oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, and teeth, salivary glands, liver, pancreas

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Digestive System (function)

-Breaks down ingested foods to smaller particles, which can be absorbed into the blood for delivery to the body cells

-Undigested residue removed from the body as feces

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Urinary System (organs)

kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra

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Urinary System (function)

-Rids the body of nitrogen-containing wastes including urea, uric acid, and ammonia, which result from the breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids

-Maintains water, electrolyte, and acid-base balance of blood

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Reproductive System (organs)

-Males: testes, prostate, scrotum, penis, sperm duct system

-Female: ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, mammary glands, vagina

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Reproductive System (function)

-Provides gametes called sperm for perpetuation of the species

-Provides gametes called eggs, the uterus houses the developing fetus until birth, mammary glands provide nutrition for the infant

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Mesentery

An apron like serous membrane, suspends many of the digestive organs in the abdominopelvic cavity.

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

thymus, spleen, lymphatic vessels

Lymphatic System

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

bones, cartilages, tendons

Skeletal System

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

pancreas, pituitary gland

Endocrine System

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

trachea, bronchi, lungs

Respiratory System

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

epidermis, dermis, cutaneous sense organs

Integumentary System

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

testis, prostate

Reproductive System

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

liver, large intestine, rectum

Digestive System

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What Organ System Do These Belong:

kidneys, ureter, urethra

Urinary System

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What is the name of the beginning lens when using a Microscope?

Scanning Objective Lens

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TRUE/FALSE: Never use a coverslip with wet mount preparations.

False, Always

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TRUE/FALSE: Use the Coarse Adjustment Knob only with the Scanning Objective Lens

True

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With the Compound Microscope, magnification is achieved through the interplay of which TWO lenses?

Ocular, Objective

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Power of the ocular lens X the power of the objective lens

Total Magnification

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The area you see through the microscope

Field

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How far the bottom of the objective lens is from the surface slide is called the _____________ ______________.

Working Distance

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When a microscope is ___________ it means that the slide should be in focus at the higher magnifications once you have properly focused at the lower magnification.

Parfocal

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List the FOUR Objective Lenses and their Magnification Stengths

1) Scanning- 4x

2) Low- 10x

3) High- 40x

4) Oil- 100x

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What COULD happen if you use the Coarse Adjustment Knob with the Low and High Objective Lenses?

The slide could break

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When you move the slide slowly away from you on the stage as you view it through the ocular lens. In what direction does the image move?

The image moves toward you

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When you move the slide to the left in what direction does the image move?

The image will move to the right

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Used to increase the amount of light passing through the specimen.

Iris Diaphram

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Delivers a concentrated beam of light to the specimen.

Condenser

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Ability to discriminate two closely situated objects as separate.

Resolution

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If there is an object on the left side of the field that you want to bring to the center (that
is, toward the apparent right). In what direction would you move your slide?

To the Left

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Why should the light be dimmed when looking at living (nearly transparent) cells?

Increases Contrast

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You have been asked to prepare a slide with the letter k on it. If you had to draw the k as seen in the
low-power field, what would it look like?

Upside down and flipped

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Does resolution increase or decrease as one moves to higher magnifications with the microscope?

Increase- to a point

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Does working distance increase or decrease as one moves to higher magnifications with the microscope?

Decreases

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Does the amount of light needed increase or decrease as one moves to higher magnifications with the microscope?

Increase

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Does the depth of field increase or decrease as one moves to higher magnifications with the microscope?

Decrease

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Located in the base - the light from the lamp passes directly upward through the microscope.

Substage Light