The Kidney

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1

kidneys

located in retroperitoneum posterior abdominal wall

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glomeruli

exclusive site of plasma filtration located in outer cortex

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medulla

consists of pyramid shaped tissues

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papilla

apex of pyramids of medulla; contains a duct that enters a cavity

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calyces

funnel urine from collecting tubules to renal pelvis

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150 mL

amount of urine accumulated for nerve reflex to signal an urge to urinate

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Passage of Urine

Plasma ultrafiltrate -> glomerulus -> nephrons -> calyces -> renal pelvis -> ureters -> bladder -> urethra

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1.3 million

amount of nephrons in each kidney

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glomerulus

capillary tuft surrounded by Bowman's capsule where filtration occurs

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proximal convoluted tubule

responsible for most reabsorption

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loop of Henle

tubular portion of nephron immediately following and continuous with the proximal tubule located in the renal medulla

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distal convoluted tubule

reabsorption and secretion of small molecules takes place in the tubules; reabsorption of water to concentrate urine

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collecting tubule

reabsorption of essential nutrients and water

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25%

percentage of total circulation kidneys receive

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hydrostatic pressure

averages 55mm Hg (half of mean arterial blood pressure) and is driving force behind glomerular filtration

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ultrafiltrate

the portion filtered out of the blood by the glomerulus that runs through the tubules as essential nutrients and water are reabsorbed into the blood stream and waste is concentrated to form urine; high in water and low in protein compared to plasma

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enzyme renin

present in afferent arteriole of juxtaglomerular apparatus

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renin

released in response to decreased arterial blood pressure or volume, decreased sodium or increased potassium, or vascular hemorrhage; causes angiotensin formation and aldosterone secretion

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aldosterone

released by the adrenal cortex and stimulated by renin to allow kidneys to reabsorb water and sodium and increase blood pressure through the distal convoluted tubule

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180,000 mL

amount of plasma filtered each day producing a final urine volume of 600-1800 mL

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600-1800 mL

amount of urine produced per day in a healthy adult

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water

largest component of urine

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urea, chloride, sodium, and potassium

other principle solutes present in urine

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filter and excrete waste, regulate acid/base balance, produce EPO, and regulate arterial blood pressure

four overall functions of the kidneys

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filtration, absorption, and secretion

the three main mechanisms the nephron uses in the formation of urine

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120-130 mL

amount of blood filtered by the kidneys per minute

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antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (vasopressin)

produced in hypothalamus and released by posterior pituitary gland, opens the spaces between the cells within the tubules, allowing for the endothelium to become highly permeable to water; if not present the spaces are joined tightly

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1%

percentage of plasma filtered that results in urine

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anuria

absence of urine

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oliguria

a significant decrease (<400mL/day) of urine

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polyuria

a significant amount (>3L/day) of urine

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cystitis

infection and inflammation of the urinary system usually the bladder

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nephritis

inflammation of the kidney

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glomerulonephritis

inflammation of the glomeruli due to immunologic, metabolic, and hereditary disorders

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pyelonephritis

infection of the kidneys leading to inflammation

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nephrosis

a disorder associated with renal disorders caused by excess protein, lipids, and edema and decreased plasma albumin

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reabsorption

movement of water and essential nutrients (amino acids, salts, and glucose) back into the blood

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secretion

movement of waste products such as creatinine through the tubules into urine

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active transport

moves against a gradient, requires energy

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passive transport

movement from higher concentration to an area of lower concentration

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7.35-7.45

normal pH range of blood

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blood bicarbonate buffer system

buffers that prevent pH from changing

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pulmonary system

get rid of excess or retain extra carbon dioxide (an acid)

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renal system

increases or decreases H+ excretion, formation of ammonia, and reabsorption of bicarbonate

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ADH inhibited

ADH when blood pressure is high leading to dilute urine

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ADH released

ADH when blood pressure drops leading to concentrated urine