RAD 111 Test 1 Study Guide

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Intro to Imaging and Radiologic Sciences, Professional Organizations, Educational Survival Skills, & Critical-Thinking and Problem-Solving Strategies
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1

Energy that is transmitted by waves through space or through a medium (matter).

Radiation

2

The capacity to do work.

Energy

3

Process by which a neutral atom gains or loses an electron, thus gaining a net charge.

Ionization

4

Uses energy to create images of the human body. Various energy forms may be used and some energies create ionizations in human tissue

Medical Radiation Sciences

5

Energy forms for Imaging.

1. Sound

2. Electromagnetic

3. Electrical

4. Heat (Thermal)

5. Magnetic

6. Nuclear

6

Field study that creates images by recording reflected sound waves. It is non-ionizing and has a wide variety of medical applications.

Medical Sonography

7

Uses electromagnetic energy in the form of x-rays to create medical images.

Radiography

8

Kind of radiation sound waves are a form of.

Non-ionizing radiation

9

Methods of Electrical imaging.

1. Electrocardiography

2. Electroencephalography

10

Method of imaging the electrical activities of the heart.

Electrocardiography

11

Method of imaging the electrical activities of the brain.

Electroencephalography

12

Images produced by the body's naturally emitted heat energy that can be useful in demonstrating conditions such as changes in the body's circulation.

Thermograms

13

Example of heat energy form of imaging.

Thermography

14

Nuclear form of imaging.

Gamma radiation

15

Energy emitted by the nucleus of an atom.

Nuclear energy

16

Nuclear Medicine Technology uses energy to create images of both __________and __________.

1. Anatomic structures

2. Physiologic actions

17

Form of electromagnetic energy that has the ability to ionize atoms.

Gamma radiation

18

Uses energy of the atom to create medical images. Its energy form is gamma radiation and it uses radioactive isotopes to create gamma radiation. Involves introduction of a radioactive substance into the body for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.

Nuclear Medicine Technology

19

Magnetic energy form for imaging. It is a non-ionizing imaging modality.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

20

MRIs use the energy of __________ and __________ to create images of the human body.

1. High-strength magnetic fields

2. Radio waves

21

Created when high speed electrons are slowed or suddenly stopped. A man-made form of electromagnetic energy.

X-Ray

22

Another form of electromagnetic radiation that is a non-ionizing form of radiation. It is important in MRIs.

Radio Waves

23

Uses X-ray energy and sophisticated software to create sectional images of the body. Creates hundreds of views of patient anatomy.

CT Scanning

24

The recording of a predetermined plane in the body using an x-ray beam that is measured, recorded, and then processed by a computer for display on a monitor.

Computed Tomography (CT)

25

Uses very high energy ionizing radiation to treat malignant (cancerous) tumors.

Radiation therapy

26

A person who administers radiation treatments to patients. They work with other team members to improve the quality of life of cancer patients.

Radiation Therapist

27

German physicist who discovered the x-ray.

Wilhelm C. Rontgen

28

The date the field of radiologic technology began.

November 8, 1895

29

Rontgen's first known x-ray image.

His wife's hand

30

Large, partially evacuated glass tube made up of a cathode and anode attached to an electrical supply invented by Sir William Crookes. It is also the forerunner of the modern x-ray tube.

Crookes Tube

31

The Crookes Tube was also called a __________.

"Cathode Ray" tube

32

Received a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1901.

Rontgen

33

Careers in Radiologic Sciences:

1. Offer wide variety of career paths

2. Begins with general radiography background

3. Specialty areas require additional education/certification

4. Career opportunities are nearly limitless and demand initiative and desire for professional success

34

A number of different names Radiology can be referred to as.

1. Radiology

2. X-ray

3. Medical Imaging

4. Diagnostic Services

5. Imaging Services

6. Imaging

35

Predominantly a diagnostic service that focuses on imaging of patients to diagnose their medical condition.

Radiology

36

What most health careers are referred to as.

Allied Health

37

Three general classifications of organizations.

1. Accreditation

2. Certification

3. Professional Organizations

38

A process to ensure high quality of operations and offerings. Sets conditions under which new members qualify for entry into the profession.

Accreditation

39

Team members of the health care team.

1. Physicians

2. Nurses

3. Allied Health

4. Supporting members (Nonclinical)

40

Hospitals are __________ within __________

1. Communities

2. Communities

41

Consists of many diagnostic areas involving energy and radiant energy.

Medical imaging

42

List of Accreditation agencies.

1. Joint Review Committee on Education in Radiologic Technology (JRCERT)

2. Joint Review Committee on Education in Diagnostic Medical Sonography (JRCDMS)

3. Joint Review Committee on Education in Nuclear Medicine Technology (JRCNMT)

43

Agency concerned with compliance with education standards developed by and for the profession of radiologic technology. Governed by a Board of Directors known as the Joint Review Committee. Requires demonstrated compliance with minimum requirements known as the Essentials and Guidelines or Standards.

JRCERT

44

Year JRCERT was established.

1969

45

Programs JRCERT currently accredits in.

1. Radiography

2. Radiation Therapy Technology

3. Medical Dosimetry

4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging

46

Agency concerned with compliance with education standards developed by and for the profession of medical sonography. It is sponsored by 9 organizations and currently accredits approximately 170 institutions dealing with medical sonography.

JRCDMS

47

Year in which the JRCDMS was established.

1979

48

Agency concerned with the education standards developed by and for the profession of nuclear medicine technology. Currently accredits approximately 100 nuclear medicine technology programs and is sponsored by 4 organizations.

JRCNMT

49

Year in which the JRCNMT was established.

1970

50

Deals with the demonstration of minimum competencies in recognized professional skills and knowledge. It is a voluntary process highly sought after by professionals within health care. It is your personal responsibility to achieve and maintain. Once achieved, you will be listed in a national registry. Provides the privilege of displaying professional credentials as earned.

Certification

51

Popular Certification Agencies in Medical Imaging.

1. American Registry of Radiologic Technologists (ARRT)

2. American Registry of Diagnostic Medical Sonographers (ARDMS)

3. Nuclear Medicine Technology Certification Board (NMTCB)

52

Year ARRT was founded in.

1922

53

Year ARDMS was founded in.

1975

54

Year NMTCB was founded in.

1977

55

Represent general welfare of their members.

Professional Societies

56

List of a Professional Society's duties.

1. Education

2. Scholarships

3. Research and special reports

4. Governmental affairs and appointments

5. Malpractice insurance plans

57

Causes emotional and biologic changes in the body. A prolonged state of constant alert over time; can result in serious physical or emotional illness.

Stress

58

Physiologic response to real or imagined threat arising from emotions of both fear and anger.

Fight - or - Flight response

59

Physiologic responses of Fight - or - Flight response.

1. Increased metabolism and fats/sugars

2. Release of hormones

3. Increased blood flow and cardiac output

4. Stimulated central nervous system

60

Strategies to deal with stress.

1. Self- image is important

2. Understand environment around you that is adding to your stress

3. Adopt a strategy of positive thoughts/emotions

4. Learn to politely say "no" to those who want to place extraordinary demands on you

61

Signs of stress.

1. Are physiologic

2. Family/friends can often sense your stress

3. Emotions may be noticeably altered

4. Stressors vary

62

Any event that adds stress. It is unique to the individual and best dealt with by using strategies to "buffer" the stress event. Recognize that many of these are out of your control.

Stressors

63

Strategies to deal with stressors.

1. Know difference between stressors and a "hassle"

2. Recognize your stress

3. Plan positive activities to balance effects of hassles and stressors

4. Avoid conversations with "out - of - control" language and replace it with "in - control" language

5. Take responsibility for yourself

6. Understand the "worry" process and that all stress can never be eliminated completely

64

A contributor to worry.

Procrastination

65

"Worry" Survival techniques.

1. Avoid procrastination

2. Take control of worry process

3. Identify events over which you have some degree of control and exercise it accordingly

4. Understand most worrisome events never turn out as your thought they would

5. Don't build "worry" mountains

66

Time as a stressor:

1. Practice time-management

2. Avoid indecisiveness when making choices

3. Set realistic completion times

4. Practice self-management

67

Self-management process:

1. Know yourself

2. Prioritize responsibilities/activities

3. Plan for self-care

68

Can help reduce harmful effects of stress.

Stress buffers

69

Examples of stress buffers.

1. Exercise

2. Proper nutrition

3. Introspective visualization and meditation

70

Good study skills process.

1. Review material as soon as it's introduced

2. Use as many senses as possible

3. Plan regular schedule of study

4. Plan study group

5. Attitude helps with remembering (Keep positive attitude)

71

Test taking tips.

1. Avoid last minute cramming

2. Wear bright colors

3. Avoid heavy, high carbohydrate meal

4. Arrive early and prepare mentally

5. Scan entire test to develop strategy

6. Review test carefully and make appropriate corrections

7. When done, put the test behind you

72

Involves sound professional judgement applied with high ethical standards. It is required in the nature of medical imaging. Trait that employers expect.

Critical thinking

73

Problem and Critical thinking steps.

1. Identify/clarify problem

2. Perform objective analysis of problem

3. Develop realistic solution

4. Consider all viable solutions

5. Select best solution and implement it