Urine Specimen Types, Collection, and Preservation

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created 2 years ago by Pmborton
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1

urinalysis

a fluid biopsy of the kidney

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first morning

preferred specimen; most concentrated; used for nitrites, protein, cytology, and formed elements (WBC, RBC, casts)

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random

for routine screening; affected by excess fluid intake or exercise not as accurate; ideal for cytology when properly hydrated

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24 hour urine

first void emptied and discarded and time begins after that; preservative added

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routine

no patient preparation required collected at any time

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midstream clean catch

for bacterial cultures or to prevent vaginal contamination; requires cleansing; voided then collected to flush normal flora

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catheterized specimen

sterile catheter inserted through urethra into bladder to flow into a collection bag; used for bacterial culture; obtained anytime

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suprapubic aspiration

puncturing of abdominal wall and distended bladder by using needle and syringe and aspirated directly from bladder which is normally sterile; used for anaerobic cultures or in infants

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mislabeled or unlabeled urine container

two most common reasons for urine specimen rejection

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50-100 mL

capacity of urine required for urinalysis

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1.002 to 1.035

specific gravity of urine

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4.0-8.0

pH of urine

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color darkens, clarity decreases, and odor increases

physical changes in urine

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creatinine

number one indicator between urine and plasma

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pH and nitrite

increased chemical changes in urine

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glucose, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen

decreased chemical changes in urine

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bacteria

increased microscopic changes in urine

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blood cells, casts, and trichomonads

decreased microscopic changes in urine