Chapter 2 Cells

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created 2 years ago by roneshac93
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Chapter 2: Cells With some directional terms in the end ( ADD with chapter 1 when printing out ) so i've added
updated 2 years ago by roneshac93
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anatomy
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1

plasma membrane function

separates inside from outside

provides the cell shape

has selective permeability

2

what are the two layers of the Phospholipid Bilayer? ( Plasma Membrane Structure )

Hydrophilic

Hydrophobic

3

Hydrophilic

water loving

4

hydrophobic

water fearing

5

fluid mosiac model functions

Proteins customize membranes

–Provide structural support

–Serve as transporters, enzymes, receptors and identity markers

6

what are the plasma membrane appendages?

- cilia

- microvilli

- flagella

7

Cilia

hair like structures that move

8

function of cilia

lines the respiratory tract

sweeps mucus and debris

9

Microvilli

fingerlike structures that DONT MOVE

- Shorter/ Smaller

10

functions of Microvilli

absorption & secretion

Increases surface areas

11

Flagella

single, large "tail"

only found on one cell in the human body ( Sperm )

12

functions of flagella

locomotion ( movement of the whole cell )

13

Cytoplasm

Jelly like matrix with fluid filled cytosol plus organelles

14

cytoskeleton

long chains of repeating protein subunits

15

cytoskeleton functions

- Give cell shape/ structure

- Serve as “tracks” for transporting things around the cell

- Projections and movements of cell

16

organelles

Cytoplasmic structures

Membrane bound

17

Nucleus

Contains DNA

- Enclosed by double membrane nuclear envelope

18

endoplasmic reticulum

A system of membranes

synthesis or degradation of molecules

19

Smooth ER

contains enzymes for steriod synthesis ( literally looks smooth = no ribosomes )

connected/ right next to nucleus

20

Rough ER

contains ribosomes for protein synthesis ( literally looks like little balls on surface )

- connected to nucleus

21

Ribosomes

Involved in Protein synthesis

–Composed of 2 rRNA subunit

- always look like little dots used to make new proteins

22

Golgi Apparatus

Stack of flattened sacs with bulbous ends, that Forms lysosomes and secretory vesicles

- packages proteins for export

- Looks similar to ER

23

exocytosis

exported proteins

24

Lysosomes ( stomach of the cell )

Sacs filled with digestive enzymes

25

apoptosis

cell death

26

lysosome functions

Digest phagocytized material

recycle cell components

involved in program cell death

27

Mitochondria

- Usually stripped looking inside

- energy producing, double membrane

originated from symbiotic bacteria

28

Cristae

Internal membrane of the Mitochondria that is highly folded

29

totipotent stem cell

not at all committed, could be anything

30

Pleuripotent stem cell

committed to collection of fates

31

Progenitor cell

committed, but not fully differentiated

32

Differentiated cell

fully committed; will not become anything else

33

Plasma Membrane

Outer Boundary of a Cell

Sometimes called “ Cell Membrane “

34

Selective Permeability

Ability to allow some substances to pass through ( some substances will not be allowed to pass through )

35

Phospholipid Bilayer

Specialized lipids that have specific regions

36

Cytosol

Liquid between Organelles

37

Cyto

Cell

38

How can you tell the difference between the Endoplasmic Reticulum & the GOLGI APPARATUS?

ER= always connected to the nucleus

Golgi is not connected & has bulbous budding ends

39

Vesicles

Membrane bound packages

40

Name the organelle attached to a nucleus with NO ribosomes

SMOOTH ER

41

I am an organelle. I have two membranes, and the inner Membranes is highly folded into Cristae. I produce ATP for the cell, so I am sometimes called the “ powerhouse of the cell”. what organelle am I ?

mitochondria

42

Name the large membrane bound structure found inside a Cell

nucleus

43

Name the jelly like Matrix found inside the cell that contains the organelles ( two possible answers )

Cytosol

Cytoplasm

44

Explain the prefix Bi in the context of the phospholipid Bilayer

Bi means two and there are two layer in the phospholipid Bilayer 1) hydrophobic & hydrophilic

45

The wrist is _____ to the hand

Proximal

46

The sternum (breastbone) is _____ to the spine

anterior/ ventral

47

your brain is _____ to the spinal cord

superior

48

the lungs are ____ to the stomach

superior

49

The thumb is ______ to the fingers

Lateral

50

the uterus is _____ to the liver

inferior

51

the gall bladder is ____ to the kidneys

ventral

52

the kidneys are _____ to the peritoneum

Dorsal

53

the heart is ______ to the lungs

medial

54

the foot is _____ to the knee

distal

55

the knee is ____ to the ankle

proximal