chapter 14: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves Flashcards


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1

the CNS consists of

the spinal cord and brain.

2

spinal cord

integrates and processes info on its own in addition to relaying info to and from the brain

3

the adult spinal cord has

posterior median sulcus(shallow)
anterior median fissure(wide)
-it includes localized enlargements (cervical and lumbar) which are expanded regions where there in increased gray matter to provide innervation of the limbs.

4

the adult spinal cord extends from the

foramen magnum to L1

5

the spinal cord tapers to a conical tip

the conus medullaris. THe filum (strand of fibrous tissue) originates at this tip and extends through the vertebral canal to the second sacral vertebra, which becomes the coccygeal ligament.

6

the spinal cord has

31 segments, each with a pair of dorsal root ganglia(containing sensory neuron cell bodies)
a pair of dorsal roots and ventral roots

7

sensory and motor fibers unite as a single

spinal nerve distal to each dorsal root ganglion.

8

spinal nerves emerge from

intervertebral foamina and are mixed nerves since they contain both sensory and motor fibers.

9

sciatic nerve

is the largest nerve in the body.

10

the caudal equina is the

inferior extension of the ventral and dorsal roots and the filum terminale in the vertebral canal.

11

the spinal meninges are a series of

specialized membranes that provide physical stability and shock absorption for neural tissues fo the spinal cord.

12

the crainal meninges

membranes taht surrounds the brain

13

3 meningeal layers

dura mater
the arachnoid mater
the pia mater

14

the spinal dura mater is the

tough, fibrous outermost layer that covers the spinal cord;caudally it forms the coccygeal ligament with the filum terminale.

15

the epidural space separates the

dura mater from the inner walls of the vertebral canal

16

subdural space is the

internal to inner surface of the dura mater.

17

arachnoid mater

separates the dura mater from the middle meningeal layer

18

subarchnoid space is the

internal to arahnoid mater. it contains cerebrospinal fluid, which acts as a shock absorber and used for spinal tap
-

19

the pia mater

is the innermost meningeal layer. it is bound firmly to the underlying neural tissue.

20

paired dendiculate ligaments are supporting fibers extending

laterally from the spinal cord surface binding the spinal pia mater and arachnoid mater to prevent either side to side or inferior movement of the spinal cord

21

the central gray mater surrounds the

the central canal and contains cell bodies of neurons and glial cells.

22

horns

the grey matter projfections toward the outer surfaces of the spinal cord

23

the peripheral white matter contains

myelinated and unmyelinated axons in tracts and columns

24

nuclei

neuron cell bodies in the spinal cord gray matter are orgainzed into groups

25

the posterior gray horns contain

somatic and visceral sensory nuclei.

26

anterior gray horns are involved with

somatic motor control.

27

the lateral gray horns contain

visceral motor neurons

28

the gray commisures are posterior and anterior of the

central canal.

29

the white mater can be divded into six colums

each of which contains tracts

30

ascending tracts relay information from the spinal cord to the brain

descending tracts carry info from the brain to spinal cord

31

there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 sacral

32

outermost layer of the spinal nerve is called the epneurium

is a dense network of collagen fibers

33

middle layer is called

perineurium-partitions the nerve into a series of bundles (fasicles) and conveys blood vessels into each individual fiber

34

inner most layer is called

endoneurium-composed of delicate connective tissue fibers that surround individual axons.

35

white ramous

the first branch of spinal nerve in the thoracic and upper lumbar region, which contains myelinated axons going to an autonomic ganglion.

36

each spinal nerve has both a

dorsal ramus and ventral ramus

37

dorsal ramus

provides sensory/motor innervation to the skin and muscle of the back)

38

ventral ramus

(supplies ventrolateral body surface, body wall and limbs

39

dermatome

each pair of spinal nerves monitors a region of the body surface

40

nerve plexus

is a complex interwoven network of nerves

41

cervice plesux consists of the

ventral rami of c1-c4 and some fibers from c5. muscles of the neck are innervated

42

brachial plexus orginate from cords or trunks

superior,middle,inferior trunks give rise to the lateral cord, medial cord, and posterior cord

43

lumbar plexus and sacral plexus orginate from the posterior adb wall and ventral rami of nerves suppllying the pelvic girdle and lower limb.

the lumbar plexus contains fibers from spinal segment t12-l4 and the sacral plexus contains fibers from spinal segments l4-s4

44

a neural reflex is a rapid, automatic, involuntary motor response to stimuli.

reflexes help preserve homeostasis by rapidly adjusting the functions of organs or organ systems.

45

a reflex are is the

neural "wiring" of a single reflex

46

a receptor is a specialized cell that monitors condition

in the body or external environment. each receptor has a characteristic range of sensitivity.

47

5 steps invlolved in the neural relfex

1)arrival of stimulus and activation of a receptor
2)relay of info to the CNS
3)info processing
4) activation of a motor neuron
5) response by a peripheral effectors

48

reflexes are classified by

1)development (innate, acquired
2) info is processed (spinal , cranial
3) motor response
4) complexity of the neural circuit

49

innate reflexes are geneticlly deteremined

acquired reflexes are learned following repeated exposure to a stimulus

50

cranial reflexes are prcoessed in the

brain

51

spinal reflex the important interconnections and processing occur

inside the spinal cord.

52

somatic reflexes control skeletal muscle contractions, and

visceral (auto)reflexes control the activities of a smooth and cardiac muscles and glands

53

a monosynaptic reflex is the

simplest reflex

54

polysnaptic reflexes have at least one interneuron places between the sensory afferent and the motor efferent

they have longer delay between stimulus and response

55

spinal reflexes range from simple to more complex polysynaptic reflexes

f

56

the stretch reflex is a monosynaptic reflex that auto regulates skeletal muscle length and muscle tone.

it includes :patellar, biceps, triceps, and ankle jerk reflex.

57

a patellar reflex is the familiar

knee jerk, where in a rap on the patellar ligament stretches the muscle spindles in the quadriceps muscles

58

a postural reflex is a

stretch reflex that maintains normal upright posture.