Safety in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory

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1

biohazards

biological substances that may present a health risk to humans

2

OSHA

publishes the standards for blood borne pathogens

3

aibrone

aerosols may form during centrifugation of unstoppered tubes or from heating cultures or specimens too rapidly, removing stoppers from tubes, or leakage from a container that holds contaminated specimens

4

ingestion

infection may occur as a result of failure to wash hands or eating, drinking, smoking, applying cosmetics, or pipetting with the mouth

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direct inoculation

infection may result from needle sticks, broken glass, animal bites, or small scratches on the fingers

6

mucous membrane contact

infection may occur if the organism can directly enter through the mucous membranes, such as through the conductive of the eye

7

arthropod vectors

infectious sources include ticks, fleas, and mosquitos which may harbor various microorganisms

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laboratory safety officer and exposure control plan

person responsible and procedure implementing safety education, universal and standard precautions, engineering controls, PPE, disposal of hazardous waste, and post exposure procedures

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safety education

includes orientation, continuing education, documentation, safety manual, and safety policies

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universal precautions

set of preventative measures designed to reduce risk of transferring HIV, HBV and other BBP's in health care setting

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standard precautions

preventative measures applied to all patients designed to reduce risk of infection in health care setting; all blood and bodily fluids must be treated as if they are potentially infectious

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121 C at 15 psi for 1 hour

heat required for autoclave steam under pressure to sterilize most contaminated microbiological materials

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sterilization

physical or chemical process that kills all microorganisms, including spores

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disinfection

destroys most microbes, but does not kill spores

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biocides

chemical agents that inactivate microorganism

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liquid decontaminants

decontaminate laboratory workbenches

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antiseptics

germicide for use on skin or tissues; not a substitute for a disinfectant

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BSL 1

No known pathogenic potential for immunocompromised individuals

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BSL2

Also includes plus lab coats, gloves, limited access, decontamination, biohazard signs; Most common microorganisms

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BSL 3

Also includes plus special clothing, controlled access and controlled air movement; Includes TB, Brucella, Rickettsia, and other viruses

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BSL 4

Also includes entrance through separate room; includes class II biological safety cabinet; Maximum containment

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corrosives

visible destruction or irreversible damage to human skin on contact

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toxic

serious biological effects

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carcinogenic

ability to induce a malignant tumor

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ignitable

any chemical capable of burning (combustible and flammable liquids)

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explosive

reactive and unstable substances that readily undergo violent chemical change

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precautionary labels

must be applied to all containers of hazardous materials

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permissible exposure limit

legal limit for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent

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short term exposure limit

maximum limits for an employee to be continually exposed to a chemical for up to 15 minutes without danger to their health