Antipsychotic & Lithium (Powerpoint)
What are the Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia?
- Bizarre Behavior
- Positive formal thought disorder
What are the Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia?
- Affective Flattening
- Attention impairment
The inability to speak
Restricted range of expressed emotions
Lack of energy and sn inability to persist in routine activities
Lack of feeling pleasure or reward
Sensory experiences that occur of environmental stimulation.
Cognitive Schizophrenia Symptoms:
- Motor Skills
- Executive functioning
What is the mechanism of Positive Schizophrenia Symptoms?
Overactivity of dopamine neurons in the Mesolimbic pathway
What is the mechanism of Negative Schizophrenia Symptoms?
Underactivity of dopamine neurons in the MesoCortical pathway.
Glutamate Theory of Positive & Negative side effects
PCP "angel dust" (amphetamine) blocks Glutamate Receptor (NMDA receptor), causing overactivity of Mesolimbic pathway and underactivity of mesocortical pathway
What are the two subtypes of 5-HT Receptor? What Schizophrenic symptom do they have an effect on?
What class of drug is 5-HT2A receptor blockers?
What type of agonist? Example?
Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs
Stimulation of 5-HT2C receptors leads to inhibition of what? What type of agonist?
Inhibition of cortical & limbic dopamine release.
What does 5-HT2C drug stimulators do?
Inhibit Dopamine release
What receptors do Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs block?
Loosely block D2 Receptors
Block Serotonin 5-HT Receptors
What side effect Typical Antipsychotic drugs tend to have?
Extrapyramidal side effects (REVERSIBLE)
Atypical Antipsychotic drugs do not induce what side effect?
What does blocking 5-HT receptors do?
Decreases Negative symptoms and EPS
Serotonin blocks dopamine release
low serotonin = high dopamine
Why do typical drugs have an EPS but atypical drugs do not have an EPS?
Typical antipsychotics bind to D2 receptors more strongly. Whereas Atypical antipsychotics loosely bind to D2 receptors.
What Atypical drug is most effective in reducing EPS, that also reduces Negative symptoms?
Clozapine greatly reduced what level in the body that would cause them to be immunocompromised?
What side effect does it have that would cause pt's not want to take the drug anymore?
What drug increases prolactin levels, therefore, should not be given to pt's with Breast Cancer?
What are the different classifications of mood stabilizing drugs?
- Lithium Carbonate
- Antiepileptic (Seizure)
- Atypical Antipsychotic
What is the Mechanism of Lithium?
Reduces ALL 2nd Messengers:
By inhibiting Inisotol