microbiology ch 14 - principles of disease and epidemiology

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1

pathology

the study of disease

2

etiology

the cause of a disease

3

pathogenesis

the development of a disease

4

infection

invasion or colonization of the body by pathogens

5

disease

an abnormal state in which the body is not performing normal functions

6

transient microbiota

can be present for days, weeks, or months

7

normal microbiota

permanently colonize the host and do not cause disease under normal conditions

8

microbial antagonism

competition between microbes

(competitive exclusion)

9

normal microbiota protect host by

competing for nutrients

producing substances harmful to invading microbes

affecting pH and available oxygen

10

symbiosis

relationship between normal microbiota and the host

11

commensalism

one organism benefits, and the other is unaffected

12

mutualism

both organisms benefit

13

parasitism

one organism benefits at the expense of the other

14

Koch's postulates

used to prove the cause of an infectious disease

15

exceptions to Koch's postulates

some pathogens can cause several disease conditions

some pathogens cause disease only in humans

some microbes have never been cultured

16

symptoms

change in body function that are felt by a patient as a result of a disease

17

syndrome

a specific group of signs and symptoms that accompany a disease

18

communicable diseases

diseases that are spread from one host to another

19

contagious diseases

diseases that are easily and rapidly spread from one host to another

20

noncommunicable diseases

diseases that are not spread from one host to another

21

incidence

the number of people who develop a disease during a particular time period

22

prevalence

the number of people who develop a disease at a specified time, regardless of when it first appeared

23

sporadic disease

disease that occurs only occasionally

24

endemic disease

disease constantly present in a population

25

epidemic disease

disease acquired by many people in a given area at a short time

26

pandemic disease

an epidemic disease that is worldwide

27

acute disease

symptoms develop rapidly but the disease lasts only a short time

28

chronic disease

symptoms develop slowly

29

subacute disease

intermediate between an acute and chronic disease

30

latent disease

causative agent is inactive for a time but then activates and produces symptoms

31

herd immunity

immunity in most of a population

32

sepsis

toxic inflammatory condition arising from the spread of microbes, especially bacteria or their toxins, from a focus of infection

33

bacteremia

bacteria in the blood

34

septicemia

growth of bacteria in the blood

(blood poisoning)

35

toxemia

toxins in the blood

36

viremia

viruses in the blood

37

primary infection

acute infection that causes the initial illness

38

secondary infection

opportunistic infection after a primary, predisposing infection

39

subclinical disease

no noticeable signs or symptoms

(inapparent infection)

40

predisposing factors

gender, age, inherited traits, climate and weather, fatigue, nutrition, lifestyle, and chemotherapy

41

incubation period

interval between the initial infection and first sings and symptom

42

prodromal period

short period after incubation; early, mild symptoms

43

period of illness

disease is most severe

44

period of decline

signs and symptoms subside

45

period of convalescence

body returns to its predecease state

46

human reservoirs

carriers may have inapparent or latent diseases

direct contact, droplet, indirect contact

47

animal reservoirs

zoonoses are diseases transmitted from animals to humans

48

nonliving reservoirs

soil, water, food, air

direct contact or droplet

49

arthropods as vectors

fleas, ticks, mosquitoes

50

mechanical transmission

arthropod carries pathogen on its feet

51

biological transmission

pathogen reproduces in the vector; transmitted via bites or feces

52

nosocomial infections

healthcare-associated infections (HAIs)

acquired while receiving treatment in a health care facility

53

microorganisms entering a host

portals of entry

mucous membrane

skin

parenteral route (deposited directly into tissues when barriers are penetrated)

54

emerging infection diseases contributing factors

genetic recombination, evolution of new strains, antibiotic-resistenance from widespread use, modern transportation, ecological disasters, animal control measures, public health failure

55

epidemiology

the study of where and when diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations

56

Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

collects and analyzes epidemiological information in US

publishes Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR)

57

morbidity

incidence of a specific notifiable disease

58

mortality

deaths from notifiable diseases