Pols exam 1

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1

Politics

The process of peacefully reconciling social and economic differences

2

Capitalism

An economic system based on private ownership of property and free economic competition among individuals and businesses

3

Ideology

Set of ideas concerning the proper political and economic system in which people should live

4

Government

The political and administrative organization of a state, nation, or locality

5

Thomas Hobbes

17th century English political philosopher who wrote about the basis of sovereignty residing in the social contract

believed.. sovereign power is essential for protecting people from one another by force necessary.

6

Collective goods

Something of value that by it's nature can be made available only to everybody or not anyone at all

-Available for the benefit of all citizens whether not they pay taxes to support them

7

Positive state

A government that helps provide the goods,services, and conditions for a prosperous equitable society

8

Minimalist state

A government that restricts its activities to providing only goods that the free market cannot produce

The government is too inefficient should be restricted to producing only good that individuals cannot provide

9

Democracy

A system of government based on majority rule, protection of minority and individual rights and the equality of all citizens before the law

10

Constitutionalism

The belief in limiting governmental power by written charter

11

colony

A territory under the direct control of a parent state

12

John Locke

English political philosopher whose ideas about political legitimacy influence the American founders

13

Articles of confederation

The first plan of a national government for the 13 American states was replaced by the constitution; under the articles, the states retained most political powers

14

Shays rebellion

A revolt by farmers from Massachusetts in 1786-1787 over the lack of economic relief, which lead many to believe that a stronger central government was necessary

15

Annapolis convention

The meeting of delegates from five states, held in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786, to consider a common policy for trade among American states; it resulted in a recommendation for a constitutional convention the following year

16

Northwest ordinance

The majority statute, enacted by Congress in 1787 under the articles of confederation, provided for the development and government of lands west of Pennsylvania

17

Virginia plan

The first plan of union proposed at the constitutional convention in 1787; it called for a strong central government

18

New Jersey plan

Introduced in the constitutional convention in opposition to the Virginia plan, it emphasized the dominance of the states

19

Great compromise

An agreement at the constitutional convention in 1787, arranged by the delegation from Connecticut, proposing to accept representation by population in the House and by the states in the Senate; sometimes called the Connecticut compromise

20

Three-fifths compromise

Temporary resolution to the controversy over slavery, this disagreement allowed slaveholding states to count each slave as 3/5 of a person for purposes of congressional representation

21

Federalist

A term for persons who advocated ratification of the Constitution in 1787 and 1788 and generally favored a strong central government; it was also the name of the dominant political party during the administration of President George Washington and John Adams

22

Antifederalists

In the first years of government under the constitution, anti-federalists in Congress were persons who opposed ratification of the Constitution in 1787 and 1788 and opposed policies associated with a strong central government such as national bank

23

The Federalists

A series of 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison and published in New York newspapers in 1787 and 1788, urging ratification of the Constitution

24

Republican(or representative)government

Style of government in which people elect representatives to make decisions in their place

25

Checks and balances

The systems of separate institutions sharing some powers that the Constitution mandates for the national government; it’s purpose is to keep power divided among the three branches: legislative, executive and judicial

26

Commerce clause

Found an article 1, section 8, of the constitution, this clause gives Congress the authority to regulate the country’s economic environment

27

Necessary and proper clause

The “elastic clause” of article 1, section 8, of the constitution; this is the source of “implied powers” for the national government, as explained in McCulloch vs Maryland

28

Writ of mandamus

Order by a court to a public official to perform on nondiscretionary or ministerial act

29

Marbury versus Madison

A U.S. Supreme Court case that established the principle of judicial review in the United States, meaning that American courts have the power to strike down laws, statutes, and executive actions that contravene the U.S. Constitution.

30

Original jurisdiction

Authority of a court over cases that begin in that court; courts of general jurisdiction have original jurisdiction over most criminal offenses, the original jurisdiction of the US Supreme Court is very small

*means that the court has the right to hear the case first.

31

Appellate jurisdiction

Includes cases a court receives from lower courts; Congress defines the appellate jurisdiction of the US Supreme Court

*means that the court hears an appeal from a court of original jurisdiction.

32

Judicial review

The Authority of courts to set aside a legislative act as being in violation of the Constitution

33

Kentucky and Virginia resolutions

A challenge to national supremacy, these state documents declared states to be the final authority on the meaning of the constitution