List characteristics of IgD.
monomer;0.2%, B cell surface, blood, lumph, stucture resembles that of IgG. has no-well-defined function.
List characteristics of IgE.
monomer, .0002%, bound to mast & basophil cells throughout body, blood, alleric rxn, possibly lysis of parasitic worms,when antigen- pollen cross-links w IgE antibodies attached to a mast cell or basophil that cell releases histamine and other chemical mediators "hay fever"
B lymphocytes come from?
T lymphocytes come from?
B cells - bone marrow (bursa of Fabricius)humoral immunity
T cells - thymus, cellular immunity
adaptive immunity has:
plasma cells are?
memory cells derive from?
antibody-producing secreting cells
Characteristics of T lymphocytes
Y shape proteins, binds to specific antigens & make it difficult for micrboes to spread, antibodies degenerate over time (half-life)
Who and when produces antibodies? p.482
B lymphocytes; when they are exposed to free or extracellular, antigens.
What is Bursa of Fabricius? p.477
an organ in chickens if removed at young age, they do not produce antibodies.
humoral immunity is?
describing immunity brought about by antibodies in body fluids; aka antibody-mediated immunity, mediated by B cells,
proteins or large polysaccharides;lipds and nucleic acids are antigenic when combined w proteins and polysaccharides.
T lymphocytes or T cells change into what different armies of T cells
CD4 - (TH)helper T cells, make up immune system, bind to MHC class II molecules on B cells & APCs
CD8 - (Tc)cytotoxin T cells- find foreign antigens & kill the cell that wears it. binds to MHC class I molecules.
How are T cells classified?
by certain glycoproteins on their surface called clusters of differentiation, or CD
What cells does HIV affect?
virus destroys CD4 T cells
What is dendritic cells?
are important in activation of CD 4 T cells,
Where does Tcells & B cells derive from? 486
Both from stem cells.
bone marrow of adult- B cells
thymus - T cells
Both migrate to lyphoid tissue ie. spleen, lymph nodes
Tc cell-T cytotoxic cells can differentiate into an
effector cell called cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL)
T cytotoxic cells, despite their name are not capable of attcking any target cells as they emerge from the thymus; they are precursors to CTLs which do have this capability.
TH2 cells -
T helper cells or CD4
1-activate cells involved in cellular immunity
2-allergic rxn & parasitic infections
4-T cells are activated by MHC class II on APCs. After binding an APC, CD4T cells secrete cytokiines that activate other T cells & B cells.