Microbiology

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Microbiology
Chapters 14-17
Grade levels:
College: Second year
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1

What is competitive exclusion? p.401

when normal flora makes the environment unpleasant for the transients. ie. E. Coli in colon; chemicals keep Salmonella, Shigella, Clostridium from growing.

2

Explain normal flora & transient flora p.400

normal flora - always present; not disease causing unless in wrong place; good guys.

transient flora - microbes just visiting; infected, disease causing.

3

List the 3 lines of defense p.450

Innate immunity (nonspecific)
1)intact skin, mucous membrane, secretions; normal flora
2) phagoctosis; inflammation,fever, antimicrobial substances

Adaptive immunity (specific) Ch17
3)specialized lymphocytes- Tcells & B cells, antibodies

4

What is infection and disease? p.400

infection - may exist in absence of detectable disease.

disease - abnormal state in which part or all of body is not properly adjusted or incapable of perfoming i'ts normal functions; overall change in health because of the microbes.

5

What is vehicle transmission and give examples p. 412

by water, food, air, blood, IV fluids, drugs. cholera, shigellosis, leptospirosis, salmonella, TB, histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, blastomycosis, Staph & Strept.

6

What are the 3 routes of transmission p. 410

What is a fomite?

Contact, vehicle, vector

indirect contact by nonliving object ie. tetanus

7

Name and give examples of 3 types of contact transmission.

a)Direct b)indirect c) droplet

a)STD, respirtory tract diseases ie. colds, influenza, Hept. A, measles, scarlet fever, mono.

b) by fomites; tissues, towels, bedding, cups, toys, money, syringes, tetanus, AIDS, Hept.B

c)mucous droplets; influenza, pneumona, pertusses, whooping cough.

8

What is vector transmission and give examples of the 2 types? p.412

animals carry; insects & anthropods.

mechanical transmission - passive transmission; fly landing on food.

biological transmission - bite from animal or insects.

9

What is nosocomial infection?

hospital acquired infection

10

Explain 2nd line of defense (innate immunity)(nonspecific) under antimicrobial substances.

complement system - 30 proteins that activate when wbc alert immune system infected cells release when microbes are present; ties up microbes& make it harder for them to spread. Causes cytolysis of microbes, promotes phagocytois, and contributes to inflammation.
interferons - protect uninfected host cells; not virus specific but host cell specific.
Fe-binding proteins - reduces available Fe.
antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) inhibit cell wall synthesis; form pores in plasma membrane that cause lysis; destroy DNA & RNA

11

What is adaptive immunity? p.477

-acquired over time; build
-specific at microbe level & memory to prevent 2ndary infectious disease
wbcs must be able to recognize who is "self" & who is "foreign"

12

list characteristics of IgG? p.481

monomer, 80%, blood, lymph intestine, transfers in placenta; enhances phagocytosis; neutralizes toxins , viruses; protects fetus & newborn; passive immunity; Rh anti-D

13

list characteristics of IgM? p.481

Pentamer, 5-10%, blood, lymph, B cell surface (as monomer) especially effective against microorganisms & agglutinating antigens 1st antibodies produced in rsponse to initial infection; antibody in ABO blood group

14

list characteristics of IgA? p.481

Dimer, 10-15%; secretions-tears, saliva, milk ,blood,lymph; most common in mucous membranes of GI tract helps protect infants from gastrointestinal infections. .