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Chapters 14-17
Grade levels:
College: Second year
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What is competitive exclusion? p.401

when normal flora makes the environment unpleasant for the transients. ie. E. Coli in colon; chemicals keep Salmonella, Shigella, Clostridium from growing.


Explain normal flora & transient flora p.400

normal flora - always present; not disease causing unless in wrong place; good guys.

transient flora - microbes just visiting; infected, disease causing.


List the 3 lines of defense p.450

Innate immunity (nonspecific)
1)intact skin, mucous membrane, secretions; normal flora
2) phagoctosis; inflammation,fever, antimicrobial substances

Adaptive immunity (specific) Ch17
3)specialized lymphocytes- Tcells & B cells, antibodies


What is infection and disease? p.400

infection - may exist in absence of detectable disease.

disease - abnormal state in which part or all of body is not properly adjusted or incapable of perfoming i'ts normal functions; overall change in health because of the microbes.


What is vehicle transmission and give examples p. 412

by water, food, air, blood, IV fluids, drugs. cholera, shigellosis, leptospirosis, salmonella, TB, histoplasmosis, coccidiomycosis, blastomycosis, Staph & Strept.


What are the 3 routes of transmission p. 410

What is a fomite?

Contact, vehicle, vector

indirect contact by nonliving object ie. tetanus


Name and give examples of 3 types of contact transmission.

a)Direct b)indirect c) droplet

a)STD, respirtory tract diseases ie. colds, influenza, Hept. A, measles, scarlet fever, mono.

b) by fomites; tissues, towels, bedding, cups, toys, money, syringes, tetanus, AIDS, Hept.B

c)mucous droplets; influenza, pneumona, pertusses, whooping cough.


What is vector transmission and give examples of the 2 types? p.412

animals carry; insects & anthropods.

mechanical transmission - passive transmission; fly landing on food.

biological transmission - bite from animal or insects.


What is nosocomial infection?

hospital acquired infection


Explain 2nd line of defense (innate immunity)(nonspecific) under antimicrobial substances.

complement system - 30 proteins that activate when wbc alert immune system infected cells release when microbes are present; ties up microbes& make it harder for them to spread. Causes cytolysis of microbes, promotes phagocytois, and contributes to inflammation.
interferons - protect uninfected host cells; not virus specific but host cell specific.
Fe-binding proteins - reduces available Fe.
antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) inhibit cell wall synthesis; form pores in plasma membrane that cause lysis; destroy DNA & RNA


What is adaptive immunity? p.477

-acquired over time; build
-specific at microbe level & memory to prevent 2ndary infectious disease
wbcs must be able to recognize who is "self" & who is "foreign"


list characteristics of IgG? p.481

monomer, 80%, blood, lymph intestine, transfers in placenta; enhances phagocytosis; neutralizes toxins , viruses; protects fetus & newborn; passive immunity; Rh anti-D


list characteristics of IgM? p.481

Pentamer, 5-10%, blood, lymph, B cell surface (as monomer) especially effective against microorganisms & agglutinating antigens 1st antibodies produced in rsponse to initial infection; antibody in ABO blood group


list characteristics of IgA? p.481

Dimer, 10-15%; secretions-tears, saliva, milk ,blood,lymph; most common in mucous membranes of GI tract helps protect infants from gastrointestinal infections. .