Chapter 40 Thermal Regulation

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1

Regulator

an animal capable of controlling internal environmental conditions independently of external conditions.

2

Conformer

animals whose internal environment is similar to their external environment.

3

_______ and ________ apply to responses to a wide variety of conditions.

Regulation and conformity

4

Animals whose internal environment is similar to their external environment are known as ?

Conformer

5

An animal capable of controlling internal environmental conditions independently of external conditions is known as

Regulator

6

Two of the most significant are responses to _________ and the _____________ inside and outside cells.

temperature and the relative concentrations of water

7

Thermal (temperature) responses are found among ?

all animals, while the balance of water is much more significant in aquatic animals.

8

Thermal regulation of chemical reactions is ?

direct

9

Thermal regulation of ____________ is direct.

chemical reactions

10

For every 10 degree C increase or decrease in temperature, there is a corresponding TWO-FOLD increase or decrease in metabolism. What is this known as ?

Q 10 Effect

11

Q 10 Effect

For every 10 degree C increase or decrease in temperature, there is a corresponding TWO-FOLD increase or decrease in metabolism.

12

(Q 10 Effect ) This applies up to a maximum or down to a minimum lethal temperature at which ?

enzyme activities drop to levels incapable of sustaining life.

13

Heat gain or loss is associated with what four different processes?

conduction, convention, radiation, evaporation

14

Conduction

Direct transfer of heat from one object to another. Occurs via direct contact. E.g. Person becomes hypothermic if left in cold water.

15

What is the Direct transfer of heat from one object to another. Occurs via direct contact. E.g. Person becomes hypothermic if left in cold water ?

Conduction

16

Convection

Transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid over the body surface. E.g. cooling breeze on your face.

17

What is the Transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid over the body surface. E.g. cooling breeze on your face.?

convection

18

Radiation

Emission of electromagnetic waves. Warm body radiates heat, e.g. sun, your face when you “blush”.

19

What is the Emission of electromagnetic waves. Warm body radiates heat, e.g. sun, your face when you “blush”. ?

Radiation

20

Evaporation

Removal of heat from a liquid as it converts to gas, e.g. the cooling effect of sweating, which is enhanced by convection as a breeze blows across your sweat.

21

What is the Removal of heat from a liquid as it converts to gas, e.g. the cooling effect of sweating, which is enhanced by convection as a breeze blows across your sweat.?

Evaporation

22

Ectotherm

animals that are temperature conformers, i.e., their body temperature and thus their metabolic activities are regulated by their external environment.

23

What are the animals that are temperature conformers, i.e., their body temperature and thus their metabolic activities are regulated by their external environment. ?

Ectotherm

24

Ectotherm includes what kinds of animals ?

All invertebrates, plus almost all fishes, amphibians and almost all reptiles.

25

Ectothermic animals are reliant on ?

environmental temperatures

26

Ectothermic animals are reliant on environmental temperatures because?

Their own metabolic rates are too low to generate much body heat.

27

Ectothermic animals typically have _________ and cannot sustain high levels of activity for long.

lower activity levels

28

Ectothermic animals typically have lower activity levels and cannot ?

sustain high levels of activity for long.

29

An advantage to ectothermy is ?

food requirements are not as high to maintain metabolic levels.

30

Endotherm –

animals that are temperature regulators, i.e., their body temperature is independent of their environment. (Usually warmer).

31

What are the animals that are temperature regulators, i.e., their body temperature is independent of their environment. (Usually warmer).?

Endotherm

32

Endotherm contain what kinds of animals ?

Among vertebrates, all mammals and birds, plus some fishes and reptiles.

33

With Endotherms there are_____ as well, primarily among the flying insects, which generate heat through the flight muscles.

invertebrate endotherms

34

With Endotherms there are invertebrate endotherms as well, primarily among the ?

flying insects, which generate heat through the flight muscles.

35

Control of temperature ranges of the body for both endotherms and ectotherms falls into what 4 categories ?

heat exchange across skin, evaporative loss, shifts in behavior, Alt. of heat production

36

Heat exchange across skin. Usually associated with ?

changes in the circulatory system.

37

Heat exchange across skin. Breaks into

Vasodilation,Vasoconstriction,Countercurrent heat exchange

38

Vasodilation –

Increase in blood vessel diameter brings heated blood near skin to allow cooling.

39

What is the Increase in blood vessel diameter brings heated blood near skin to allow cooling.

Vasodilation

40

Vasoconstriction –

Decrease in vessel diameter that minimizes heat loss.

41

What is the Decrease in vessel diameter that minimizes heat loss.

Vasoconstriction

42

Countercurrent heat exchange –

blood vessels passing outward from the core of the body (heated blood) lie parallel to blood vessels carry blood from the body surface inward (cooled blood).

43

What are the blood vessels passing outward from the core of the body (heated blood) lie parallel to blood vessels carry blood from the body surface inward (cooled blood).

Countercurrent heat exchange

44

Heat transfers by conduction keeping the body core warm. This is found in?

many endotherms, including the few species of endothermic fishes (bluefin tunas, great white and mako sharks).

45

____________ can greatly alter rate of heat loss/absorption.

Insulation of body (hair, feathers, fat layers)

46

Insulation of body (hair, feathers, fat layers) can greatly alter rate of ?

heat loss/absorption.

47

Evaporative loss.-

A terrestrial adaptation.

48

A terrestrial adaptation. is also called what?

Evaporative loss.

49

Evaporative loss. Occurs through ?

exhaled air (including panting)

50

Evaporative loss. Occurs through exhaled air (including panting) and across ?

skin in animals that sweat.

51

Shifts in behavior-

Moving into shade or jumping into water when body temperatures begin to rise to uncomfortable levels, e.g., basking reptiles.

52

Moving into shade or jumping into water when body temperatures begin to rise to uncomfortable levels, e.g., basking reptiles.Is also known as

Shifts in behavior

53

Hibernation -

metabolic shutdown when food supplies are not adequate to sustain active life, e.g., reptiles in winter.

54

metabolic shutdown when food supplies are not adequate to sustain active life, e.g., reptiles in winter. Is also known as ?

Hibernation

55

Migration –

movement away from less favorable environments, e.g., monarch butterflies.

56

movement away from less favorable environments, e.g., monarch butterflies. Is also known as?

Migration

57

Shivering –

involuntary behavior in which the muscles undergo rapid short contractions which generates extra heat.

58

involuntary behavior in which the muscles undergo rapid short contractions which generates extra heat. Is also known as?

Shivering

59

Movement –

muscle activity itself increases body heat. “Pacing to keep warm”.

60

muscle activity itself increases body heat. “Pacing to keep warm”. Is also known as?

movement

61

Alteration of heat production from metabolism. Found only in ?

birds and mammals

62

Alteration of heat production from metabolism. Found only in birds and mammals, which are collectively referred to as _____

homeotherms.

63

(homeotherms.)These animals regulate their body temperature within a ______ range.

narrow

64

Any time the environmental temperature is lower than the body temperature, there is a net loss of heat.

_________compensate for this loss.

Homeotherms

65

Any time the environmental temperature is lower than the body temperature, there is a ____________

net loss of heat.

66

Any time the environmental temperature is lower than the body temperature, there is a net loss of heat.Homeotherms compensate for this loss.

They do so through a metabolic process called ?

non-shivering thermogenesis

67

Any time the environmental temperature is lower than the body temperature, there is a net loss of heat.Homeotherms compensate for this loss.

They do so through a metabolic process called non-shivering thermogenesis, which ?

increases the rate of heat production by mitochondria.