FINAL EXAM PSYC 2301

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1

What is the contemporary definition of psychology?

The scientific study of behavior, mental processes, and brain functions.

2

What is biological psychology?

biological psychology The psychological perspective that focuses on the relationships between mind and behavior, as well as their underlying biological processes, including genetics, biochemistry, anatomy, and physiology; also known as behavioral neuroscience

3

What is evolutionary psychology?

evolutionary psychology A psychological perspective that investigates how physical structure and behavior have been shaped by their contributions to survival and reproduction

4
  1. How does science differ from everyday observations?
  • Science doesn’t refer to just any type of knowledge, but rather to a special way of learning about reality through systematic observation and experimentation.
5
  1. What is objectivity? What is subjectivity?
  • are based on facts, without influence of emotions or biases.
  • are based on personal points of view.
6
  1. What is confirmation bias?
  • more likely to remember observations in line with our own beliefs.
7
  1. What is critical thinking?

or the ability to think clearly, rationally, and independently, is one of the foundations of scientific reasoning

8
  1. Define theory. What do the best scientific theories seek to do?
  • Science seeks to develop theories, which are sets of facts and relationships between facts that can be used to explain and predict phenomena.
  • The best scientific theories not only explain and organize known facts, but also generate new predictions.
9

Define correlation

more precisely it is a measure of the extent to which two variables are related.

10

Describe how correlations should be interpreted.

research measure the direction and strength of the relationship between two variables, or factors

11

What is an experiment? What can be concluded in an experiment that can’t in a correlation?

If you want to show cause and effect, you must conduct an experiment, in which a researcher manipulates an independent variable (IV) to determine if it causes a change in a dependent variable (DV).

12

What is the function of the cerebellum?

  • Drive vital functions, such as heart rate, breathing, digestion
  • The cerebellum has many other functions, including enabling nonverbal learning and memory.
13

What is the function of the thalamus? Why is it called the “gateway to the cortex?”

  • The thalamus is the “sensory router”: All sensory messages, except smell, are routed through the thalamus on the way to the cortex (outer brain).
  • These messages cross over from one side of the body to the opposite side of the brain.