EXAM 4- Ch14

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How do experts define psychological disorder?

Clinically significant behavior or psychological syndrome or pattern occurring in an individual and associated with present distress .


What is abnormal psychology? Why is it necessary for psychologists to agree on the differences between typical and abnormal behaviors?

The study of psychological disorders.

Deciding that an individual's behavior and mental processes are abnormal is the first step toward labeling that person with a psychological disorder and providing Help


What is comorbid?

Presence of two or more disorders in the same individual


What percent of the U.S. population suffers from diagnosable mental health problems in a given year? What are the rates of psychological disorders in college students?


half of young adults


What is the DSM-5?

2013 update of DSM by the American psychiatric association.

DSM(Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders)


What does the integrated perspective of psychological disorders help us understand?

Possible causes for abnormal behavior. factors leading to psychological disorders.


What are delusions? What are hallucinations?

Delusions: False, illogical beliefs

hallucinations: false perception


What are the characteristics of schizophrenia?

Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized thoughts and behaviors, disorder movement


What evidence exists that schizophrenia has a biological basis?

One twin was diagnosed other has 50% chance of schizophrenia. triplets two were diagnosed 2 have it and one has bipolar disorder


What evidence exists that environmental factors play a role in schizophrenia?

African American immigrants living in London were twice as likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia

cannabis use nearly double the risk


What is bipolar disorder? Describe characteristics of a manic episode.

Mood disorder characterized by alternating periods of mania and depression.

Mania-unrealistic elevated moods

elevated mood, high self-esteem, racing thoughts


What are the signs of major depressive disorder (MDD)? How prevalent is MDD?

Lengthy period of Depression loss of pleasure, disturbance in appetite or sleep, difficulty concentrating, feeling hopeless thoughts of suicide.

prevailing rates vary widely


What is learned helplessness and how is it applied to depression?

Random or uncontrolled consequences leads to feelings of hopelessness and depression.

operant conditioning


What is believed to explain women’s higher depression rates compared to men?

Hormonal changes,postpartum, menopause


What are the biological explanations for MDD?

Hormonal changes affecting serotonin function decreased left frontal lobe activity, right frontal lobe activity is high.


What is anxiety disorder? What is the lifetime prevalence rate of anxiety disorders among Americans?

Not proportional to a person circumstance.


What is specific phobia?

Unrealistic fear of an object or situation


What is social anxiety disorder?

Unrealistic fear of being scrutinized or criticized by people


Describe the symptoms of a panic attack. What is panic disorder?

Panic attacks: Intense fear and autonomic arousal in absence of real threat

Panic disorder: repeated panic attacks and fear of future attacks.


What is generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)?

Excessive anxiety and worry that is not correlated with any particular objects or situations.


What are the biological explanations for GAD? What are the cognitive explanations for GAD?

Biological: underlying genetic's, biochemistry and structure

cognitive: organize our thinking about the worlds into schemas or system of beliefs


What are the symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder? What is an obsession? What is a compulsion?

Obsession: intrusive distressing thought

compulsion: repetitive ritualistic behavior associated with High anxiety

obsessive-compulsive disorder: intrusive obsessions and compulsions


What are the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder?

Posttraumatic stress: experience trauma, flashback dreams, hypervigilance, avoiding stimuli associated with trauma


What are dissociative disorders? What is dissociative fugue?

Dissociative disorder: Disruption In identity, memory and consciousness

Dissociative fugue: people become confused over there identity


What is dissociative identity disorder?

Multiple personality disorder


What are personality disorders?



What are characteristics of antisocial personality disorder?

.antisocial behavior, deceitfulness, hostility, irresponsibility, manipulativeness, risk taking behaviors, aggression, impulsivity, irritability, or lack of restraint


What are characteristics of narcissistic personality disorder?

grandiosity, callous and unemotional traits, disregard for others' feelings, excessive need for admiration, receptor antagonist, or social isolation

A disorder in which a person has an inflated sense of self-importance