The Prokaryotes: Domains Bacteria and Archaea

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Microbiology
Chapter 11
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1

Bergey's manual groups the prokaryotes into two domains:

bacteria and archaea

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Proteobacteria

mythical Greek god, Proteus, who could assume many shapes. Gram negative (-), chemoheterotrophic, the largest taxonomic group of bacteria.

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Alpha-Proteobacteria

unusual morphology, a group can utilize nutrients in a variety of ways and can be nitrogen fixating, chemoheterotrophs , or chemoautotrophs . have a distinct appearance because they display unique extensions called prosthecae.

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Prosthecae

are a characteristic of Alphaproteobacteria, which use these outward buds (picture outstretched arms) to increase their surface-to-volume ratio.

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Rickettsia

obligate intracellular parasites, gram negative (-) rods, transmitted by insects ot ticks. Ex: R.rickettsii Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever - transmitted by ticks.

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Beta-Proteobacteria

often use nutrients that diffuse away from areas of anaerobic decomposition of organic matter (hydrogen gas; ammonia; methane). several important pathogenic bacteria belong to this group.

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Burkholderia

capable of degrading more than 100 different organic substances

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Bordetella

pertussis (whooping cough)

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Neisseria

usually inhabit the mucous membranes of mammals (gonorrhea; meningococcal meningitis)

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Azospirillium

live in symbiosis with many plant roots

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Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

Rickettsia, gram (-) rods

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Zoogloea

aerobic sewage treatment processes

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Gamma Proteobacteria

largest subgroup of proteobacteria, gram (-), includes great variety of physiological types

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Legionella (will be on test)

causes a form of pneumonia known as legionellosis

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Pseudomonas

gram (-) rods; can grow in hospitals, on soap residues, cap-liner adhesives, and on antiseptics.

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Vibrio

slightly curved rods; cholera; usually transmitted to humans via raw or undercooked shellfish

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Enterobacterioles

facultatively anaerobic, gram (-) rods; inhabit the intestinal tracts of humans and other animals (Enterotube tests)

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Escherichia coli

E. coli - indicates fecal contamination

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Salmonella

potentially pathogenic: can contaminate food; serotype testing for different varieties (typhoid fever; salmonellosis.

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Shigella

bacillary dysentery or shigellosis

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Klebsiella

may cause serious pneumonia in humans

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Proteus

swarming type of growth; urinary tract infections; infection in wounds

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Yersinia

plague, prairie dogs and fleas

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Enterobacter

urinary tract infections

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Pastueurella

pathogen of domestic animals

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Non-Proteobacteria Gram (-)

not related phylogenetically to the proteobacteria. include physiologically and morphologically distinctive photosynthesizing bacteria

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Domain Bacteria

  • Proteobacteria
  • Alpha
  • Beta
  • Gamma
  • Delta
  • Epsilon
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Delta Proteobacteria

Important contributors to the sulfur cycle, some are predators on other bacteria. Myxococcus - slime trails

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Epsilon Proteobacteria

helical or vibrioid (curved)

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Helicobactor

peptic ulcer

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Campylobacter

spontaneous abortion in domestic animals

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Haemophilus

require blood in media; common cause of meningitis in young children; frequent cause of earaches.

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Myxococcus

slime traits

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Cyanobacteria

green sulfur and non-sulfur bacteria, carry out photosynthesis, some fix nitrogen(important to the environment), blue-green algae, morphology varies

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Photosynthetic bacteria

anaerobic environments, habitat deep sediments of ponds and lakes. carry out photosynthesis (contains chlorophyll). anoxygenic do not produce oxygen. purple sulfur use H2S rather than O2. green sulfur- bacteria, purple nonsulfur use carbohydrates and acids instead of O2. green nonsulfur

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Chlamydiae

no gram negative cocci, no peptidoglycan. Chlamydia common cause of blindness in humans (trachoma); also caused the sexually transmitted infection; transmitted by interpersonal contact or by airborne respiratory routes

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Spirochaetes

use of axial filaments, treponema = causes syphilis,

Borrelia - causes relapsing fever & lime disease.

Leptospira - water contamination from animal urine (dog, cat, rat)

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Bacteriodetes

includes many anaerobes

Bacteroides - human intestinal tracts

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Fusobacteria

anaerobic, pleomorphic, in the gums

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Gram (+) Bacteria

Divided into two groups:

  • High G + C ratio > 50%
  • Low G + C ratio < 50% (firmicutes)
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Low G + C Bacteria

  • Mycoplasma (M. pneumoniae) lack cell, pleomorphic, very small, may pass through filters.
  • Clostridium (C. botulinum) obligate anaerobes; tetnus, botulism, gangrene and diarrhea
  • Bacillus (B. anthracis) rods that produce endospores; several species produce antibiotics (anthrax)
  • Listeria (L. monocyteogenes)- food contamination
  • Staphylococcus (S. aureus) grapelike clusters; facultative anaerobes infection of surgical wounds; toxic shock syndrome; food poisoning.
  • Lactobacillus located in the vagina, intestinal tract, oral cavity; used to make sauerkraut, pickles, buttermilk, and yogurt. aero tolerant anaerobes
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High G + C Bacteria

  • Mycobacterium (M. tuberculosis) - aerobic, non-endospore-forming rods; acid-fast; drug resistant; waxy outer layer; tuberculosis, and leprosy
  • Corynebacterium - pleomorphic diphteria
  • Propionibacterium - used to make swiss cheese; acne
  • Gardnerella - pleomorphic; vaginitis
  • Frankia - causes formation of nitrogen fixing nodules to form in alder tree roots.
  • Streptomyces - produces most of our antibiotics
  • Actinomyces - mouth and throat of humans and animals
  • Nocardia - mycetoma (destructive infection of the feet and hands
  • Impetigo - caused by Strep or Staph
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Archaea

cell walls lack peptidoglycan, no known pathogen, some are unusual morphology, can divide by binary fisson of budding, can live in extreme environments

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Halophiles

survive high salt concentrations > 25%

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Hyperthermophiles

high temperature

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Methanogens

methane producing

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Acidophiles Sulfolobus

acid sulfur rich hot springs