MMED2932 Renal system

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 4 years ago by ajwaters
181 views
updated 4 years ago by ajwaters
Subjects:
renal
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

Which of the following is NOT a component of the juxtaglomerular apparatus?

Select one:
a. collecting duct.
b. afferent arteriole.
c. Bowman’s capsule.
d. efferent arteriole.
e. A and D.

a

2

In the presence of vasopressin, the distal and collecting tubules are

Select one:
a. highly permeable to water
b. impermeable to water.
c. highly permeable to K+ ions.
d. impermeable to aldosterone.
e. all of the above.

a

3

A patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure. A doctor may prescribe a drug to:

Select one:
a. increase renin secretion.
b. increase vasopressin secretion from the lungs.
c. increase aldosterone secretion.
d. increase water reabsorption from the descending limb of the loop of Henle.
e. block the effects of angiotensin II.

e

4

Which of the following would you NOT expect to find in the filtrate of the Bowman’s capsule.

Select one:
a. white blood cells.
b. water
c. Na+
d. large proteins
e. both A and D

e

5

Activation of the parasympathetic nerve supply to the bladder will lead to:

Select one:
a. contraction of external urethral skeletal muscle.
b. contraction of lungs.
c. inhibition of detrusor smooth muscle.
d. contraction of urethral smooth muscle.
e. contraction of the detrusor smooth muscle.

e

6

Tubular secretion involves which of the following processes

Select one:
a. the selective transfer of Cl- ions from the collecting ducts into the Bowman’s capsule
b. the selective transfer of substances from the peritubular capillaries to the tubular lumen.
c. the selective transfer of creatinine from the glomerulus to the proximal convoluted tubule.
d. the selective transfer of angiotensin I into angiotensin II in the lungs.
e. both B and C.

b

7

Which of the following is incorrect. Filtrate in the collecting ducts normally contains:

Select one:
a. red blood cells.
b. inorganic anions.
c. water.
d. Na+ ions.
e. All of the above

a

8

The major role of the countercurrent multiplier system is to

Select one:
a. produce high blood pressure in cold water.
b. create an environment that facilitates reabsorption of water and other ions.
c. produce urine that is high in K+ ions, to prevent cardiac failure.
d. secrete water from the glomerulus during conditions of high blood pressure.
e. both A and B are correct.

b

9

Which of the following statements is incorrect.

Select one:
a. podocytes lie on the loop of Henle.
b. red blood cells are commonly found in the filtrate of Bowman’s capsule.
c. afferent arterioles are innervated by parasympathetic nerves.
d. A, B & C are incorrect.
e. only A & C are incorrect.

d

10

Which of the following would likely occur in response to an increase in aldosterone release:

Select one:
a. increased urine output.
b. increased Na+ reabsorption.
c. increased water reabsorption in the kidney tubules.
d. all of the above would be likely to occur.
e. none of the above.

b

11

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) acts primarily in the

Select one:

a. right ventricle

b. Bowman’s capsule.

c. glomerulus.

d. heart.

e. none of the above.

e

12

A woman consumed a 2 litre bottle of water at a local football game, over a 1 hour period. Which of the following would you expect to occur after she consumed the water.

Select one:

a. increased renin release.

b. increased aldosterone release.

c. increased vasopressin release

d. A decrease in vasopressin release.

e. A & B are correct.

d

13

Which of the following would likely occur in response to an increase in aldosterone release:

Select one:

a. increased urine output.

b. increased Na+ reabsorption.

c. increased water reabsorption in the kidney tubules.

d. all of the above would be likely to occur.

e. none of the above.

b

14

Which of the following statements about afferent arterioles is correct?

Select one:

a. are the only arterioles supplying all the major internal organs of the body.

b. form the collecting ducts for water reabsorption.

c. carry blood to the collecting duct

d. they constrict following increased sympathetic nerve stimulation.

e. only A and D are correct.

d

15

Which of the following statements is incorrect.

Select one:

a. podocytes lie on the loop of Henle.

b. red blood cells are commonly found in the filtrate of Bowman’s capsule.

c. afferent arterioles are innervated by parasympathetic nerves.

d. A, B & C are incorrect.

e. only A & C are incorrect.

d

16

When the bladder is filling

Select one:

a. there is little parasympathetic input to the detrusor muscle, but strong sympathetic input to the internal urethral sphincter.

b. there is increased sympathetic input to the detrusor muscle, but strong parasympathetic input to the internal urethral sphincter.

c. there is increased parasympathetic input to both the detrusor muscle and the internal urethral sphincter.

d. there is usually only increased sympathetic input to the internal urethral sphincter.

e. none of the above.

a

17

An increase in aldosterone secretion would normally act to

Select one:

a. increase renin secretion in the lungs.

b. increase glucose absorption in the anterior hypothalamus.

c. none of the above.

d. decrease Na+ reabsorption.

e. increase water conservation leading to an increase in arterial blood pressure.

e

18

In the presence of vasopressin, the distal and collecting tubules are

Select one:

a. highly permeable to water

b. impermeable to water.

c. highly permeable to K+ ions.

d. impermeable to aldosterone.

e. all of the above.

a

19

Increased sympathetic nerve activity will lead to

Select one:

a. increased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and a decrease in GFR.

b. increased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and an increased GFR.

c. decreased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and an increased GFR.

d. decreased efferent arteriole vasoconstriction and no change in GFR.

e. none of the above.

a

20

During micturition, which of the following occurs.

Select one:

a. The detrusor muscle is stimulated and the internal and external urethral sphincters are inhibited.

b. Only the detrusor muscle is inhibited.

c. The internal urethral sphincter is inhibited, while the external urethral sphincter is activated.

d. The internal urethral sphincter is activated, while the external urethral sphincter is relaxed.

e. The detrusor muscle, internal urethral sphincter and external urethral sphincters are all activated.

a

21

The major role of the countercurrent multiplier system is to

Select one:

a. produce high blood pressure in cold water.

b. create an environment that facilitates reabsorption of water and other ions.

c. produce urine that is high in K+ ions, to prevent cardiac failure.

d. secrete water from the glomerulus during conditions of high blood pressure.

e. both A and B are correct.

b

22

A patient is diagnosed with high blood pressure. A doctor may prescribe a drug to:

Select one:

a. increase renin secretion.

b. increase vasopressin secretion from the lungs.

c. increase aldosterone secretion.

d. increase water reabsorption from the descending limb of the loop of Henle.

e. block the effects of angiotensin II.

e

23

The reabsorption of Na+ ions in the tubules is due to

Select one:

a. photosynthesis.

b. an active process.

c. a passive process of diffusion.

d. glomerular filtration pressure.

e. None of the above are correct.

b

24

Renin is secreted into the

Select one:

a. collecting ducts.

b. Bowman’s capsule.

c. distal tubule.

d. adrenal cortex.

e. none of the above.

e

25

Which of the following statements is most correct:

Select one:

a. If a patient was taking medication to block the angiotensin converting enzyme this would likely have the effect of increasing blood pressure.

b. If a patient had excessive renin secretion they could potentially have high blood pressure.

c. If a patient had low blood pressure a good strategy would be to reduce the production or release of renin.

d. If a patient had no adrenal glands, they could not have any release of renin.

e. If a patient had high blood pressure, a common strategy would be to increase the production of vasopressin.

b

26

Which of the following statements about afferent arterioles is correct?

Select one:

a. are the only arterioles supplying all the major internal organs of the body.

b. form the collecting ducts for water reabsorption.

c. carry blood to the collecting duct

d. they constrict following increased sympathetic nerve stimulation.

e. only A and D are correct.

d

27

A woman consumed a 2 litre bottle of water at a local football game, over a 1 hour period. Which of the following would you expect to occur after she consumed the water.

Select one:

a. increased renin release.

b. increased aldosterone release.

c. increased vasopressin release

d. A decrease in vasopressin release.

e. A & B are correct.

d

28

Constriction of the afferent arteriole will lead to a

Select one:

a. a decrease in glomerular capillary blood pressure.

b. an increase in net filtration pressure

c. an increase in urine output.

d. an increase in glomerular capillary blood pressure.

e. all of the above

a

29

Increased sympathetic nerve activity will lead to

Select one:

a. increased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and a decrease in GFR.

b. increased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and an increased GFR.

c. decreased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and an increased GFR.

d. decreased efferent arteriole vasoconstriction and no change in GFR.

e. none of the above.

a

30

When the bladder is filling

Select one:

a. there is little parasympathetic input to the detrusor muscle, but strong sympathetic input to the internal urethral sphincter.

b. there is increased sympathetic input to the detrusor muscle, but strong parasympathetic input to the internal urethral sphincter.

c. there is increased parasympathetic input to both the detrusor muscle and the internal urethral sphincter.

d. there is usually only increased sympathetic input to the internal urethral sphincter.

e. none of the above.

a

31

Which of the following statements is incorrect.

Select one:

a. podocytes lie on the loop of Henle.

b. red blood cells are commonly found in the filtrate of Bowman’s capsule.

c. afferent arterioles are innervated by parasympathetic nerves.

d. A, B & C are incorrect.

e. only A & C are incorrect.

d

32

Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) acts primarily in the

Select one:

a. right ventricle

b. Bowman’s capsule.

c. glomerulus.

d. heart.

e. none of the above.

e

33

Which of the following is NOT commonly secreted into the kidney tubules.

Select one:

a. K+ ions.

b. renin

c. H+ ions.

d. aldosterone.

e. B & D.

e

34

Renin is secreted into the

Select one:

a. collecting ducts.

b. Bowman’s capsule.

c. distal tubule.

d. adrenal cortex.

e. none of the above.

e

35

Activation of the parasympathetic nerve supply to the bladder will lead to:

Select one:

a. contraction of the detrusor smooth muscle.

b. contraction of external urethral skeletal muscle.

c. contraction of lungs.

d. inhibition of detrusor smooth muscle.

e. contraction of urethral smooth muscle.

a

36

A sudden decrease in arterial pressure would likely lead to which of the following

Select one:

a. an increase in sympathetic nerve activity.

b. an increase protein reabsorption in the from the collecting ducts.

c. a decrease in GFR due to increased parasympathetic activity.

d. an increase in adrenaline release from the heart.

e. none of the above would likely occur.

a

37

Increased sympathetic nerve activity will lead to

Select one:

a. increased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and a decrease in GFR.

b. increased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and an increased GFR.

c. decreased afferent arteriole vasoconstriction and an increased GFR.

d. decreased efferent arteriole vasoconstriction and no change in GFR.

e. none of the above.

a

38

Tubular secretion involves which of the following processes

Select one:

a. the selective transfer of Cl- ions from the collecting ducts into the Bowman’s capsule

b. the selective transfer of substances from the peritubular capillaries to the tubular lumen.

c. the selective transfer of creatinine from the glomerulus to the proximal convoluted tubule.

d. the selective transfer of angiotensin I into angiotensin II in the lungs.

e. both B and C.

b

39

During bladder filling, which of the following occurs.

Select one:

a. stretch receptors within the bladder wall are activated, sending local neural reflexes within the intrinsic nervous system to allow the bladder to fill properly.

b. stretch receptors located in the urethra are predominantly activated.

c. stretch receptors in the spinal cord are activated, which cause bladder contraction allowing the filling process to occur smoothly.

d. the detrusor muscle is relaxed and the sphincters are closed.

e. none of the above.

d

40

The major role of the countercurrent multiplier system is to

Select one:

a. produce high blood pressure in cold water.

b. create an environment that facilitates reabsorption of water and other ions.

c. produce urine that is high in K+ ions, to prevent cardiac failure.

d. secrete water from the glomerulus during conditions of high blood pressure.

e. both A and B are correct.

b