Module 11 Part 1
Pt w/ frequent urination, hematuria, no pain during urination, negative bacteria culture
What does the pt most likely have?
Interstitial Cystitis (IC)
Interstitial Cystitis (IC): What is it?
Damaged urothelium (bladder lining)
Antiproliferative Factor (APF): What does it do?
Blocks normal growth of cells in bladder
- seen in som IC patients
Interstitial Cystitis(IC): Hemorrhagic ulcers
Interstitial Cystitis(IC): S/s
**ON EXAM** "w/o what?"
-S/s as UTI w/o bacteria
-Increase urinary frequency
-Irritation of bladder wall: Bleeding/pain, inflamation-fibrosis
Interstitial Cystitis(IC): S/s
What is a Hemorrhagic Ulcer called?
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia(BPH): What is it?
*Enlargment of prostate --> too many cells*
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia(BPH): Causes
-FH, Obese w/ central fat distribution (chronic inflammatory state)
- increase 5 alpha-Reductase enzyme activity
- decrease testosterone, increase DHT
- Decrease androgen(male hormone), increase estrogen(femal hormone)
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia(BPH): What does 5 alphe-reductase do?
It converts testosterone into (DHT) dihydrotestosterone
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia(BPH): S/s
-Hesitant, interrupted, weak stream
urgency, frequency, nocturia, leaky/dripping (bc incomplete emptying)
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia(BPH): Late stage
Hematuria, bladder/kidney infections, hydronephrosis
Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia(BPH):
___beer --> ___estrogen = _________
increase beer --> increase estrogen = Boobs (Gynecamastia)
Urine Incontinence: Stress incontinence; describe
- <60 yrs/o
- decrease pelvic floor muscles
Urine Incontinence: What is the muscle called that constricts the bladder?
Urine Incontinence: Urge Incontinence; describe
-in older adults
- Over active nerves controlling bladder(detrusor muscle)
- neurological disorders: parkinsons, MS, CNS, Peripheral nerve damage
Urine Incontinence: S/s
-Same S/s as UTI
Urine Incontinence: Testing
- Pelvic US
more then 3 loose/watery stools w/in 24hrs lasting les than 2 wks
Diarrhea: Osmotic Diarrhea
Artificial sweeteners - Sorbitol
ex. Haribo Gummy Bears
Diarrhea: Secretory diarrhea(large volume)
viral, bacterial or perisitic
Diarrhea: Secretory diarrhea(small volume)
Diarrhea: Motility diarrhea
(decrease transit time)
SI resection, IBS, Laxative abuse
- ova & parasite (o&p) test
- Rectal exam
-Antimotility agent , Treat underlying cause
Diverticulitis: What is it?
*Caused by diverticulosis(herniation) out pouching of GI tract. Can become inflamed/infected*
Diverticulitis: What kind of problem?
Large Intestine problem
Diverticulitis: Where is it MC?
Where is it rare in?
Rare in SI (small intestine)
-Elderly, Genetic predisposition, obesity, Smoking
- low fiber fiet, low physical exercise
- Aspirin & other NSAIDS
What can it lead to?
-Abdominal pain, cramping, N/V, Leukocytosis
- Can lead to: abscess, perforations, bleeding, peritonitis, scaring - blockage, fistula - sticks to other organs
-CT, abdominal US
Bright, Red, Blood, Per, Rectum
-High fiber (soft stools decrease pressure iside intestines
-surgery if severe complications