anthropology

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1

intensification

The chief could make capital investments, leading to an increase in the size of the "economic pie". By introducing terracing, irrigated fields and fish farming, the chief is increasing the total amount of food produced in the society. He can increase the amount that he takes as tribute while leaving the commoners enough to subsist. This arrangement doesn't require an extremely large military to enforce the chief's will. This was the major reason that Hawaiian chiefs instituted intensification -- it allowed them to meet their political objectives of gaining the support of sub-chiefs without causing rebellion among commoners. (In fact, this is a major reason why our government promotes economic growth -- because the more the economy grows, the more revenue it collects as taxes -- which is much easier to do politically than simply raise the tax rate).

2

expansion

The chief could increase the number of tribute producers by incorporating new territory and populations into the society. This involves territorial expansion -- conquering another paramount chiefdom, driving off or killing its chiefly leadership, and forcing its population to pay tribute to the victorious chief. This is a very tempting option to chiefs and is a major reason why chiefdoms are expansionary. However, this is also a costly option, since it means the support of a military force large enough to subdue the forces of another chiefdom and the burden of that support ultimately is shouldered by commoners.

3

aztec and inca

Few states have ever ruled exclusively on basis of force. In fact, force is a very expensive way to get compliance, since a standing military is a tremendous drain on a society's productive capacity. In most states, at any one time, most people comply with the state's rule not because they are forced to, but because they believe in it. That is, the population of a state accepts its legitimacy, or its moral right to rule. In all prehistoric states, religion was the primary basis of the state's legitimacy. All prehistoric states were associated with official religious creeds that were supported by the tribute collected from commoners. So a fourth branch of the state's bureaucracy consists of religious specialists whose activities are underwritten by state financing. In most early states, religion legitimized the rule of the leaders; they either had divine status or were descended from gods, or they received their right to rule directly from the gods. This was characteristic of western civilization as well as the Aztec and Inca archaic states: in the Middle Ages, priests preached the doctrine of the "divine right of kings", meaning that kings derived their right to rule over commoners directly from God. Just as God stood over all mortals on earth, so kings stood above their subjects in their individual countries.

4

financial aministrators (record-keeping)

work as clerks and statisticians to keep track of the amount of tribute paid to the state, and who coordinate this income with the requirements of the leaders and various branches of bureaucracy. Because of this need for record-keeping, the first writing systems come into existence with the development of states. Writing originally develops as a means of recording revenues and expenses. Only later is it used to record events or belief systems. The Inca did not develop a true writing system, but they used an imaginative system of knotted cords to record the volumes of various items collected by the state as tribute. These were known as quipu, and the officials were maintained and interpreted these records occupied an important place in the Inca bureaucracy.

5

judicial authorities(institutions)

establish laws that regulate citizens’ behavior and resolve conflicts among citizens. Notice that here the state develops a monopoly on the use of force. Citizens may not use force to settle disputes among themselves but must appeal to the state to resolve their conflicts. By regulating conflict among its members, the state has replaced a function once fulfilled by peoples’ kinship groups.

6

military specialists

All states have a full-time military. Partly this is to defend the state's borders against neighboring, expansionary states. Partly this is to attempt to expand the state's control of territory and populations by defeating those neighboring societies. An additional function of the military is to reinforce the rule of the state and its claim to all of the vital resources of a society. Ultimately the state's rule is backed up by use or threat of force. All states have coercive means to force people to comply with its decisions and with its demands of tribute.

7

religious specialists

whose activities are underwritten by state financing. In most early states, religion legitimized the rule of the leaders; they either had divine status or were descended from gods, or they received their right to rule directly from the gods. This was characteristic of western civilization as well as the Aztec and Inca archaic states: in the Middle Ages, priests preached the doctrine of the "divine right of kings", meaning that kings derived their right to rule over commoners directly from God. Just as God stood over all mortals on earth, so kings stood above their subjects in their individual countries.

8

peasants

subsistence-oriented farmers in state societies who support other groups of people by producing an agricultural surp

9

Closed cooperate community

a) Membership is limited to the people born in the community. Outsiders may not move in and be considered members, at least as far as community resources (notably land) are concerned.
b) Some land is held in common by the community. Land is not to be sold, either to other members of the community or to people from outside the community. People born in the community receive some land as a birthright, while outsiders have no such access. The amount of land held by the community is almost never sufficient for the needs of its members, however, so most people at some point will have to work outside the community to supplement their earnings.
c) Pronounced social and cultural closure of the community to outside influences:
i) A tendency toward endogamy; little or no intermarriage with other communities.;
ii) A marked hostility toward outsiders;
iii) A strong sense of group identity -- each peasant community is usually culturally and linguistically distinct from others. Members may dress in a local style not found anywhere else, and may speak a dialect of a language spoken in only a few other places. For example, most peasants in Guatemala speak a Maya language rather than Spanish, but there are 26 different Maya dialects, most of which are mutually unintelligible. That is, they all belong to the Maya linguistic family, but they are as different from one another as are two Germanic languages, such as English and Dutch. Some of these Mayan languges are still spoken in only 3 or 4 villages -- in other words, there may only be a few thousand surviving speakers. In other cases, as with Nahuatl in Mexico or Quechua in the Andes, there may be millions of speakers of these Precolumbian languages. In addition, in many such villages, relatively few people have had any schooling, and as a result many have little or no command of the national language (Spanish).

10

Endogamy

is the practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such basis as being unsuitable for marriage or other close personal relationships.

11

image of limited good

This is the belief that all desirable things in life -- whether wealth, land, happiness or health -- exist in limited and unchanging amounts. There is no way for people to increase the total amount of good things, and it is assumed that one individual's good fortune comes at the expense of someone else. Accordingly, if one member of a community has more of these things than the average person, it must be because someone else has been deprived of their rightful share.

12

cargo system

all male members of the community are expected to take part at least once in their lifetimes (starting as young men). For most men, these obligations will be quite minor — perhaps cleaning a chapel, providing votive candles or some decorations for the church. As they get older, some individuals proceed on to higher “cargos,” or obligations. These higher positions require more cash outlay and a greater commitment of time. For example, they might sponsor a special Mass during the fiesta, which involves paying the transportation costs and a small stipend for a visiting priest, if there is none residing in the community. Or a sponsor might hire a brass band to perform at a community celebration.

13

Open Community

a) members are indistinguishable from other communities and the national culture, no longer speaking a native language or adopting a local style of dress. Instead, people speak the national language and wear manufactured clothing.
b) membership is open to outsiders
c) land is privately owned, and can be bought and sold as a commodity
d) the cargo system of obligatory ritual expenses no longer exists, or is greatly reduced in scale. In some instances this is because as land becomes a commodity, people find it far more attractive to invest in land or other forms of productive resources than in community-wide celebrations. The recent rise of Protestantism in many areas of Latin America has also caused the system to collapse, as Protestant converts do not venerate the saints. Once some members of the community stop underwriting cargos, the rest soon follow.
e) there is much production of crops for agricultural markets, particularly in foreign countries (i.e. production of coffee, bananas, sugar, etc.).

14

Effects of world markets

In most cases, rebellions occurred primarily among people who had lost their land and who were supporting revolutionary leaders who promised land reform. Typical of them might be someone like Fidel Castro or Mao Tse Tung, who were of urban and educated backgrounds, but drew almost all of their support during the early stages of their revolutions from rural landless peasants. In many instances, the effects of world markets have contributed to this process. And finally, as noted above, peasants who are uprooted in neighboring countries may end up becoming our newest neighbors in our own society.