He discovered x-rays on November 8, 1895.
Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen
The energy of motion.
He was the first known x-ray fatality.
The sum total of all matter and energy in the universe is constant: matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.
Einstein's Law of Conservation
This law states that an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an external force and an object in motion will remain in motion at the same velocity and in the same direction unless acted on by an external force.
Newton's First Law of Motion
The ability to do work.
This dentist/physician was an early radiation protection advocate. He published the pamphlet "X-light Kills" in 1898.
William Herbert Rollins
The stored energy an object has because of its position.
Anything that has mass and occupies space.
The amount of energy needed to knock an electron out of orbit.
Electron Binding Energy
The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Mass Number (A)
Two or more atoms chemically united. The smallest part of a compound that still possesses the characteristics of the compound.
A simple substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means.
He developed the earliest atomic theory.
An element that gains or loses a neutron.
A complex substance that is formed when two or more elements are chemically united in definite proportions.
The chemical combining ability of an element.
An element that gains or loses an electron.
He was the first to develop atomic theory based on scientific evidence, not philoscophical speculation.
States that the outermost shell of an atom never contains more than 8 electrons.
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic Number (Z)
The smallest particle of an element that still possesses the chemical properties of that element.
He expanded on Rutherford's work, developing the solar system model of the atom.
He developed the "plum pudding" model of atomic theory.
J. J. Thomson
He did scattering experiments that demonstrated the vast amount of empty space in atoms.
Diagnostic x-ray wavelength range.
0.1 to 0.5 Angstroms
Frequency and wavelength are ____________ proportional.
The emission of nuclear particles and energy in order for an atom to become stable.
The length of time it takes for half the remaining atoms to decay.
The electromagnetic spectrum is arranged from __________ energy to ____________ energy.
The intensity of the wave defined by its maximal height.
Radiation that can remove an orbital electron from the atom with which it interacts.
Two atoms share electrons that orbit both nuclei.
The velocity of all electromagnetic radiation.
The speed of light (3 X 108 m/s)
Energy equals Planck's constant times frequency.
Particle Theory Equation
A type of particulate radiation made up of two protons bound to two neutrons.
The product of ionization. Made up of an orbital electron and its atom.
He described the relationship between photon energy and frequency.
A type of particulate radiation made up of an electron emitted from an unstable nucleus.
Disturbance in a medium.
The number of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time.
The force that keeps electrons from flying away from the nucleus.
One atom gives up an electron and the other atom takes on an extra electron.
Physical particles originating from radioactive atoms with the ability to ionize matter.
Velocity equals frequency times wavelength.
Electromagnetic Wave Equation
Photon energy and frequency are __________ proportional.
Stopped using x-rays because of the burns he and his assistant received during experimentation.
The force that keeps electrons in their respective orbits.