RAD 131

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Basic Math and Radiation Concepts
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1

He discovered x-rays on November 8, 1895.

Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

2

The energy of motion.

Kinetic Energy

3

He was the first known x-ray fatality.

Clarence Dally

4

The sum total of all matter and energy in the universe is constant: matter and energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be converted from one form to another.

Einstein's Law of Conservation

5

This law states that an object at rest will stay at rest unless acted on by an external force and an object in motion will remain in motion at the same velocity and in the same direction unless acted on by an external force.

Newton's First Law of Motion

6

The ability to do work.

Energy

7

This dentist/physician was an early radiation protection advocate. He published the pamphlet "X-light Kills" in 1898.

William Herbert Rollins

8

The stored energy an object has because of its position.

Potential Energy

9

Anything that has mass and occupies space.

Matter

10

The amount of energy needed to knock an electron out of orbit.

Electron Binding Energy

11

The number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

Atomic Mass Number (A)

12

Two or more atoms chemically united. The smallest part of a compound that still possesses the characteristics of the compound.

Molecule

13

A simple substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means.

Element

14

He developed the earliest atomic theory.

Leucippus

15

An element that gains or loses a neutron.

Isotope

16

A complex substance that is formed when two or more elements are chemically united in definite proportions.

Compound

17

The chemical combining ability of an element.

Valence

18

An element that gains or loses an electron.

Ion

19

He was the first to develop atomic theory based on scientific evidence, not philoscophical speculation.

John Dalton

20

States that the outermost shell of an atom never contains more than 8 electrons.

Octet Rule

21

The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.

Atomic Number (Z)

22

The smallest particle of an element that still possesses the chemical properties of that element.

Atom

23

He expanded on Rutherford's work, developing the solar system model of the atom.

Neils Bohr

24

He developed the "plum pudding" model of atomic theory.

J. J. Thomson

25

He did scattering experiments that demonstrated the vast amount of empty space in atoms.

Ernest Rutherford

26

Diagnostic x-ray wavelength range.

0.1 to 0.5 Angstroms

27

Frequency and wavelength are ____________ proportional.

Inversely

28

The emission of nuclear particles and energy in order for an atom to become stable.

Radioactivity

29

The length of time it takes for half the remaining atoms to decay.

Half-life

30

The electromagnetic spectrum is arranged from __________ energy to ____________ energy.

Lowest: Highest

31

The intensity of the wave defined by its maximal height.

Amplitude

32

Radiation that can remove an orbital electron from the atom with which it interacts.

Ionizing Radiation

33

Two atoms share electrons that orbit both nuclei.

Covalent Bond

34

The velocity of all electromagnetic radiation.

The speed of light (3 X 108 m/s)

35

Energy equals Planck's constant times frequency.

Particle Theory Equation

36

A type of particulate radiation made up of two protons bound to two neutrons.

Alpha Particle

37

The product of ionization. Made up of an orbital electron and its atom.

Ion Pair

38

He described the relationship between photon energy and frequency.

Max Planck

39

A type of particulate radiation made up of an electron emitted from an unstable nucleus.

Beta Particle

40

Disturbance in a medium.

Waves

41

The number of waves that pass a point in a given amount of time.

Frequency

42

The force that keeps electrons from flying away from the nucleus.

Centripetal Force

43

One atom gives up an electron and the other atom takes on an extra electron.

Ionic Bond

44

Physical particles originating from radioactive atoms with the ability to ionize matter.

Particulate Radiation

45

Velocity equals frequency times wavelength.

Electromagnetic Wave Equation

46

Photon energy and frequency are __________ proportional.

Direcly

47

Stopped using x-rays because of the burns he and his assistant received during experimentation.

Thomas Edison

48

The force that keeps electrons in their respective orbits.

Centrifugal Force