PSY 210 Chapter 2

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Development Psychology
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1

the foundation for all development.

genes

2

occurs when two gametes (an ovum and a sperm, each with 23 chromosomes) combine to form a zygote , 46 chromosomes in a single cell

human conception

3

Every cell of every human being has a unique genetic code made up of about ______ genes, some in variations called _______.

20,000-23,000; alleles

4

The _______ interacts with the genetic instructions for every trait.

environment

5

The sex of the embryo depends on the _____

sperm

6

Y sperm create ________ embryos

XY (male)

7

X sperm create _________ embryos

XX (female)

8

Twins occur if a zygote splits in two ________ or if two ova are fertilized by two sperm _________.

(monozygotic or identical); (dizygotic or fraternal)

9

The ______ of each person is set by the genotypes of the parents

genotype

10

apparent characteristics

phenotype

11

the first two weeks of prenatal growth are the:

the cells differentiate, and the developing organism implants itself in the lining of the uterus

germinal period

12

the period from the third through the eighth week after conception is called the:

the heart begins to beat, and the eyes, ears, nose, and mouth form

embryonic period

13

By the _____ week, the embryo has the basic organs and features of a human, with the exception of sex organs

8th

14

The _____ period extends from the ninth week until birth

fetal

15

By the _____ week, all the organs and body structures have formed

12th

16

The fetus attains viability at _____ weeks, when the brain is sufficiently mature to regulate basic body functions

22

17

The average fetus gains approximately _____ pounds during the last three months of pregnancy

4.5

18

Maturation of the ____, ______, & ______ ensures survival of virtually all full-term babies

brain, lungs, & heart

19

Medical intervention can :

1. speed contractions

2. dull pain

3. measure infant health via the Apgar scale,

4. save lives

20

Some women feel unhappy, incompetent or unwell after giving birth; gradually disappears with appropriate help

postpartum depression

21

_______ are affected by pregnancy and birth as well, and are vulnerable to depression after birth

fathers

22

Often a zygote has more or fewer than _________

46 chromosomes

23

Such zygotes usually do not develop; the main exceptions are those with 3 chromosomes at the 21st location- _________, or an odd number of sex chromosomes

Down syndrome, or trisomy-21

24

Thousands of ______, especially drugs and alcohol, have the potential to harm the embryo or fetus

teratogens

25

Actual harm occurs because of a cascade: ________________ all have an impact

genes, critical periods, dose, and frequency

26

Birth complications, such as unusually long and stressful labor that includes anoxia (________), have many causes.

a lack of oxygen to the fetus

27

Low birth weight:

less than 5.5 pounds

28

Low birth weight may result from:

multiple fetuses, placental problems, maternal illness, genes, malnutrition, smoking, drinking, and drug use

29

partly genetic but not completely; it is particularly crucial that children who are genetically vulnerable avoid early exposure to alcohol

alcohol use disorder

30

partly genetic; but understanding heritability helps show that the relatively recent increase in this is affected by outdoor light

nearsightedness

31

the impact of genes within a population, not necessarily within an individual

heritability

32

_______ & _______ interact to cause virtually all human problems

nature; nurture

33

understanding ______, _______, _______, & ______ increase the odds that a newborn will have a long and healthy life

genes, prenatal development, birth, & childhood