PSY 210 Chapter 1

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Developmental Psychology-BARNA
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1

a science that seeks to understand how people change of remain the same over time

study of human development

2

As a science, the study of human development begins with__________ and__________ and then gathers ____________.

questions, hypotheses; empirical data

3

Researchers draw conclusions based on the __________.

evidence

4

confirms, modifies, or refutes the conclusions of a scientific study.

Replication

5

________ and _________ always interact, affected by every human characteristic.

Nature (genes), nurture (environment)

6

discovered differential susceptibility- that certain genes increase or decrease the likelihood that a child will be affected by the environment.

Neuroscience

7

Development is divided by three domains:

1. biological (body)

2. cognitive (mind

3. psychosocial (social world)

8

Every domain is involved in every characteristic, which makes the science of human development always _______.

multidisciplinary

9

The assumption that growth is linear and progress is inevitable has been replaced by the idea that ____________ and __________ are part of every life, that gains and losses are apparent at every age.

both continuity (sameness); discontinuity (sudden shifts)

10

Development is:

1. multi-directional

2. multi-contextual

3. multi-cultural

11

a crucial variable in studying human development

time

12

a time when something must occur to ensure normal development or the only time when an abnormality might occur

critical period

13

Often a particular development can occur more easily- but not exclusively- at a particular time called:

sensitive period

14

ecological-systems approach notes that each of us is situated within larger systems of family, school, community, and culture, as well as part of a historical cohort

Urie Brofenbrenner's

15

______ within a person, or in the context, affect all other aspects of the system.

changes

16

an important influence on human development, affecting a person's opportunities, health, and even abilities at every stage

Socioeconomic status (SES)

17

includes beliefs and patterns

culture

18

refers to ancestral heritage

ethnicity

19

_____ and ______ often overlap but are not identical

culture, ethnicity

20

a social construction, sometimes mistakenly thought to be biological

race

21

Developmentalists try to avoid the ___________. Differences may be alternate ways to think or act, not necessarily less beneficial than the familiar ways.

difference-equals-deficit error

22

human development is _______; emphasizes that it is possible for brains and behaviors to change over time, although it is also true that early experiences affect later development

plastic, plasticity

23

stress the legacy of childhood

Psychoanalytic theories

24

according to _____, conflicts associated with children's erotic impulses have a lasting impact on adult personality.

Freud

25

______ thought that the resolution of each crisis affects later life and that new crises appear in adulthood

Erikson

26

believe that scientists should study observable and measurable behavior; emphasizes conditioning, in which one stimulus may be associated with another (classical conditioning) or reinforcement and punishment may guide future behavior (operant conditioning).

Behaviorists, behaviorism

27

believe that thoughts and beliefs powerfully affect attitudes, actions, and perceptions.

Cognitive theorists

28

proposed four age-related periods of cognition

Piaget

29

focuses on each aspect of cognitive input, processing, and output

information processing

30

emphasizes the potential of humankind

humanism

31

proposed a hierarchy of needs, which could lead to self-actualization

Maslow

32

contends that genes have fostered survival and reproduction of the human species for tens of thousands of years; those genes continue to influence human behavior today, in alloparenting, attachment, and male/female behavior

Evolutionary theory

33

commonly used research methods are scientific observation, the experiment, and the survey; each can provide insight and discoveries that were not apparent before the research, although no method is perfect

scientific method

34

a challenge for developmentalists is to:

methods include cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential

study change over time

35

shows that two variables are related; however, it does not prove that one variable causes the other

correlation

36

crucial in all the sciences; not only must participants be protected and data kept confidential (primary concerns of IRBs), but results must be fairly reported and honestly interpreted

ethical behavior

37

whether scientists are designing, conducting, analyzing, publishing, and applying the research that is most critically needed- a challenge for the next generation of developmentalists

the most important ethical question