Anatomy Final Flashcards


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1

Define: science of body structures and their relationships

Anatomy

2

Define: science of body functions

Physiology

3

Name the steps of the scientific method.

1) Observation
2) Hypothesis
3) Experiment
4) Data
5) Conclusion

4

Define: use of senses to notice and study a phenomenon

Observation

5

Define: potential testable explanation for a phenomenon, based on observations and prior knowledge and experience

Hypothesis

6

Define: implementation of specific materials and methods designed to test a hypothesis; should include a control group and experimental group(s)

Experiment

7

Define: results generated by conducting experimental tests

Data

8

Define: statements based on analysis of test results that discuss evidence to support or reject the hypothesis

Conclusion

9

What happens if many related hypotheses are tested repeatedly over time and consistently yield the same results?

It may lead to scientific theory.

10

Define: widely accepted concepts based on extensive experimental evidence

Scientific theory

11

Define: also based on extensive experimental extensive, but arise from numerous studies that have been shown to produce exactly the same results every time under the same circumstances

Scientific laws

12

Define: condition of equilibrium in the body's internal environment due to the constant interplay of all the body's regulatory processes

Homeostasis

13

Define: sum of all chemical processes that occur in the human body

Metabolism

14

Define: phase of metabolism that involves breaking down complex chemical substances into simpler ones; = decomposition reactions

Catabolism

15

Define: phase of metabolism that involves building complex chemical substances from smaller, simpler ones; = synthesis reactions

Anabolism

16

Define: any abnormality of function

Disorder

17

Define: (more specific) illness characterized by a recognizable set of signs and symptoms

Disease

18

Define: subjective changes in body functions and not apparent to observer; examples: headache, nausea

Symptoms

19

Define: objective changes a clinician can observe and measure; examples: swelling, rash, fever, high blood pressure

Signs

20

Define: substance that cannot be split into a simpler substance by ordinary chemical means

Element

21

Define: smallest units of matter that retain the properties and characteristics of an element

Atoms

22

Define: number of protons in nucleus of an atom of an element

Atomic number (since number of electrons equals the number of protons, atomic number reveals number of electrons)

23

Define: sum of protons and neutrons in atom

Mass number

24

Define: average of all naturally occurring stable isotopes of a given element in AMU (Daltons)

Atomic mass (weight)

25

Define: atoms of element that have different numbers of neutrons and thus different mass numbers, but have same number of protons and electrons, so same chemical properties

Isotope

26

Define: atom that has positive or negative charge due to giving up or gaining electrons (ionization), which results in unequal number of protons and electrons

Ion

27

Define: two or more atoms (same or different) joined together by sharing of electrons

Molecule

28

Define: substance that contains two or more different elements

Compound

29

Define: force of attraction that holds ions having opposite charges together

Ionic bond

30

Define: two or more atoms (same or different) share one or more pairs of their valence electrons equally

Nonpolar covalent bond

31

Define: two or more atoms (same or different) share one or more pairs of their valence electrons unequally and results in partial negative charge near atom with greater electronegativity and partial positive charge near other atoms

Polar covalent bond

32

Define: occur between polar molecules that contain polar covalent bonds between H and very electronegative atoms, such as O-H, N-H, or F-H bonds

Hydrogen (H) bonds

33

Define: releases more energy than it absorbs

Exergonic reaction

34

Define: absorbs more energy than it releases

Endergonic reaction

35

Define: special type of exchange reaction that involves transfer of electrons between atoms or molecules

Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions

36

Define: in general, lack carbon and are structurally simple; include water, many salts, acids, and bases

Inorganic compounds

37

Define: contain carbon and many are relatively large and have unique characteristics that allow them to carry out complex functions; include carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and ATP

Organic compounds

38

Define: major source of energy used to power reactions in body that require energy; most of this in the cell is produced in the mitochondria and produced by aerobic cellular respiration

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)

39

Name the 6 major nutrients.

1) Water
2) Vitamins
3) Minerals
4) Carbohydrates
5) Lipids
6) Proteins

40

What is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living systems?

Water

41

Define: the storage form of carbohydrates

Glycogen

42

Define: storage form of lipids

Triglycerides

43

Are proteins stored for future use?

No

44

Name the 4 levels of protein structural organization.

1) Primary
2) Secondary
3) Tertiary
4) Quaternary

45

Describe the protein structural organization of the primary level.

Has unique aa sequence joined by covalent peptide bonds

46

Describe the protein structural organization of the secondary level.

Has repeated twisting or folding neighboring amino acids in polypeptide chain (alpha helixes and pleated sheets)

47

Describe the protein structural organization of the tertiary level.

Has 3-D folding pattern formed by various bonds; determines shape and how a protein will function

48

Describe the protein structural organization of the quaternary level.

Has an arrangement of two or more polypeptide chains relative to each other

49

What is the pH scale of 0-14 based on?

Molar concentration of hydrogen ions

50

What does pH 7 mean?

midpoint; neutral pH; where concentration of hydrogen and hydroxide are equal

51

What classifies as acidic?

Below pH 7

52

What classifies as basic (alkaline)?

Above pH 7

53

Describe an acid.

Below pH 7, proton donor, dissociates into hydrogen and anions

54

Describe a base.

Above pH 7, proton acceptor, dissociates into cations and hydroxide or another proton acceptor, such as NH3

55

Describe a salt.

Dissociates into cations and anions, neither of which is hydrogen or hydroxide

56

Acid + base = ?

Acid + base = Salt + water

57

Do pH of body fluids differ?

Yes, but each has narrow normal limits, so buffer systems maintain pH balance inside and outside of cell

58

Define: substance that resists drastic changes in pH (maintains pH) by converting strong acids or bases into weak ones

Buffer

59

Define: encloses and protects cell and contains functional proteins such as enzymes that catalyze chemical reactions, receptors that bind ligands and regulate cellular activity, transporters that regulate what enters and exits cell, and cell identity markers

Plasma membrane

60

Define: cellular contents between the plasma membrane and the nucleus; includes cytosol and organelles

Cytoplasm

61

Define: fluid that surrounds organelles

Cytosol

62

Define: specialized structures with characteristic shapes and specific functions in cell growth, maintenance, and reproduction

Organelles

63

What does organelles include?

Nucleus, nucleoli, ribosomes, rough ER, smooth ER, Golgi apparatus, mitochondria, centrioles, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and other structures

64

Define: spherical or oval-shaped structure where most of cell's DNA and nucleoli are located; "control center of the cell"

Nucleus

65

Define: one or more spherical bodies in nucleus that are sites of rRNA synthesis and assembly of rRNA and proteins into ribosomal subunits

Nucleoli

66

Define: site of protein synthesis; attached to nuclear envelope and rough ER, free in cytosol, and in mitochondria

Ribosomes

67

Define: network of folded membranes with attached ribosomes that synthesize proteins, which then enter RER for processing and sorting; synthesizes glycoproteins and phospholipids

Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

68

Define: network of folded membranes (with no ribosomes) that synthesizes fatty acids and steroids and may have other functions, such as detoxification of harmful substances, depending on cell type

Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (RER)

69

Define: modifies and packages proteins synthesized in rough ER for transport

Golgi apparatus

70

Define: generate most of cell's ATP for energy to drive cellular activities; "powerhouse of the cell"

Mitochondria

71

Define: form mitotic spindle during cell division and involved in construction of structures such as flagella and cilia

Centrioles

72

Define: membrane-enclosed vesicles that contain digestive and hydrolytic enzymes that break down foreign cells, worn out organelles, and a wide variety of molecules

Lysosomes

73

Define: contain oxidative enzymes that can deactivate harmful substances

Peroxisomes

74

What is the structural framework of the cell's plasma membrane?

A lipid bilayer: two back to back layers made up of primarily phospholipids plus cholesterol and glycolipids

75

What is the structural framework of the cell's plasma membrane described as?

A "fluid mosaic model": moving sea of fluid lipids with a mosaic of different functional proteins

76

Is the cell's plasma membrane selectively permeable?

Yes, it allows free passage of many lipid-soluble molecules but selectively controls crossing of ions or polar substances through transporter proteins

77

Define: consists of nuclear division during cell division that produces 2 identical daughter cells with diploid number of chromosomes; mainly in somatic cell division

Mitosis

78

What are the 4 phases of mitosis?

1) Prophase
2) Metaphase
3) Anaphase
4) Telophase

79

Define: cytoplasmic division during cell division; begins in late anaphase, completed in telophase

Cytokinesis

80

Define: period between cell divisions during which cell is functionally and metabolically active and also undergoes growth and duplicates its DNA, organelles, and cytosolic components in anticipation of cell division

Interphase

81

Define: reproductive cell division that produces gametes (oocytes in females and sperm in males) in which the number of chromosomes in the nucleus are reduced by half (haploid number)

Meiosis

82

Define: synthesis of DNA from DNA template

DNA replication

83

Define: synthesis of mRNA from DNA template

Transcription

84

Define: synthesis of amino acid sequence of protein from mRNA template

Translation

85

Define the structure of DNA.

- Double stranded and has double helix structure resembling spiral ladder
- Sides of ladder are formed by alternating deoxyribose sugars and phosphate groups
- Rungs are formed by nitrogenous base pairs joined to each other by hydrogen bonds

86

Name the 4 nitrogenous bases of DNA.

1) Guanine
2) Cytosine
3) Adenine
4) Thymine

87

What does thymine pair with?

Adenine

88

What does guanine pair with?

Cytosine

89

Describe the structure of RNA.

- Differs from DNA
- Single-stranded instead of double-stranded
- Contains ribose instead of deoxyribose
- Contains uracil rather than thymine

90

What does uracil pair with?

Adenine

91

What does guanine pair with?

Cytosine (same as DNA)

92

Name the 3 kinds of RNA made from DNA template.

1) messenger RNA (mRNA)
2) ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
3) transfer RNA (tRNA)

93

Describe the function of mRNA.

Directs protein synthesis

94

Describe the function of rRNA.

Joins with ribosomal proteins to make ribosomes

95

Describe the function of tRNA.

One end binds specific amino acid and other end has anticodon that base pairs with complimentary codon on mRNA, to hold amino acid in place on ribosome until it is incorporated into protein during translation

96

Define: each sequence of 3 nucleotides in mRNA that base-pairs with a DNA base triplet

Codon (in mRNA)

97

Define: nucleotide triplet on tRNA that base pairs with complimentary mRNA codon

Anticodon

98

Define: regions within gene that do not code for parts of protein

Introns

99

Define: regions within gene that do code for parts of protein

Exons

100

Transport processes that move substances across cell membranes are classified as passive or active depending on....?

Depending on whether they require energy

101

Define: substances uses its own kinetic energy to move down it concentration or electrochemical gradient across membrane until it reaches equilibrium (equal on both sides); does not require energy

Passive transport

102

Define: allows passage of nonpolar substances

Simple diffusion through lipid bilayer (passive transport)

103

Define: allows passage of small polar or charge substances (mainly ions)

Facilitated diffusion through channels (passive transport)

104

Define: allows passage of larger and highly polar/charged substances via transporter protein

Facilitated transport (diffusion) transporters (passive transport)

105

Define: energy-requiring process in which transport proteins move solutes across membrane against (up) concentration gradient; requires energy

Active transport

106

Define: energy derived from hydrolysis of ATP to "pump" substance across membrane against (up) its concentration gradient

Primary active transport

107

Define: harnesses potential energy of steep Na+ or H+ concentration gradient (established by primary active transport of these ions) to transport substance up its concentration gradient as Na+ or H+ move down their concentration gradient

Secondary active transport

108

Define: move two or more substances in same direction (part of secondary active transport)

Symporters

109

Define: move two or more substances in opposite directions (part of secondary active transport)

Antiporters

110

Define: vesicles, small sacs that bud off from an existing membrane, transport substances between structures within cell or in and out of cell

Vesicle transport

111

Define: materials move into a cell in a vesicle formed by plasma membrane

Endocytosis

112

Define: membrane enclosed "secretory" vesicles form inside cell, fuse with plasma membrane, and release their contents into extracellular fluid

Exocytosis

113

Define: net movement of water across membrane not permeable to solutes

Osmosis

114

Define: measure of solution's ability to change volume of cells by altering their water content

Tonicity

115

Define: concentrations of solutes same on both sides of membrane, so water enters and exits at same rate and cells maintain normal shape and volume

Isotonic solution

116

Define: has lower concentration of solutes than cytosol, so water enters cells faster than it leaves causing cells to swell and burst

Hypotonic solution

117

Define: has higher concentration of solutes than cytosol, so water moves out of cells faster than it moves in causing cells to shrink

Hypertonic solution

118

Define: contact points between plasma membrane of tissue cells

Cell junctions

119

Define: transmembrane proteins fuse adjacent cells' plasma membranes together to retard the passage of substances and form water tight seal so common in urinary and digestive tracts

Tight junction

120

Define: cells are joined by cadherin proteins of adjacent cells that insert into protein plaques inside plasma membrane so help epithelial surfaces resist separation

Adherens junction

121

Define: have plaques and cadherins that attach cells to one another, but also have intermediate filaments that extend from desmosomes on one side of cell across cytosol to desmosomes on opposite side of cell to prevent cells from separating under tension so common in epidermis and cardiac muscle

Desmosomes

122

Define: similar to desmosomes but contain integrins, rather than cadherins and anchor cells to basement membrane between epithelium and connective tissue

Hemidesmosomes

123

Define: membrane proteins called connexins form tiny fluid-filled tunnels called connexons that connect neighboring cells and allow rapid communication and diffusion of substances between the cells so common in nervous tissue and cardiac muscle

Gap junction

124

Name the 4 basic types of body tissues.

1) Epithelial tissue
2) Connective tissue
3) Muscle tissue
4) Nervous tissue

125

Define: covers body surface, lines hollow organs, body cavities & ducts, and forms glands

Epithelial tissue

126

Define: protects and supports body and organs

Connective tissue

127

Define: generates physical force needed to make body structures move

Muscle tissue

128

Define: detects changes in conditions inside and outside of body and responds by generating nerve impulses that control other tissues help maintain homeostasis

Nervous tissue

129

Name 4 examples of exocrine glands.

1) Sudoriferous glands
2) Sebaceous glands
3) Ceruminous glands
4) Goblet glands

130

Define: exocrine glands that secret sweat into hair follicles or onto the skin's surface to lower body temperature

Sudoriferous glands

131

Define: exocrine glands connected to hair follicles that secrete an oily substance to help prevent hair and skin from drying out

Sebaceous glands

132

Define: modified sweat glands in external auditory canal that secret ear wax to impede entrance of foreign particles

Ceruminous glands

133

Define: unicellular exocrine glands that secret mucus to help lubricate and protect lining of GI tract and help trap foreign particles in respiratory tract so they can be moved back out by cilia

Goblet cells

134

Define: includes tissues such as adipose (loose CT), tendons & ligaments (dense CT), cartilage, bone, blood, and lymph

Connective tissue (CT)

135

Describe connective tissue.

- Binds together, supports, and strengthens other tissues (loose and dense CT)
- Protects and insulates internal organs (adipose)
- Compartmentalizes structures such as skeletal muscles (loose & dense)
- Major transport system (blood)
- Stored energy reserves (adipose fat tissue)
- Main site of immune responses (lymph and white blood cells)

136

Define: muscle fibers use ATP to generate force

Muscle tissue

137

Name the 3 types of muscle tissue.

1) Skeletal
2) Cardiac
3) Smooth

138

Define: usually attached to bones of skeleton, voluntary, and striated (alternating light/dark bands on stained fibers)

Skeletal muscle

139

Define: forms most of wall of heart, involuntary, branched, striated, and contains intercalated discs (with gap junctions and desmosomes)

Cardiac muscle

140

Define: located in walls of hollow organs (blood vessels, airways, digestive, urinary, reproductive), involuntary, and nonstriated

Smooth muscle

141

Define: controls and integrates all body activities within limits that maintain life

Nervous tissue

142

Name the 3 basic functions of nervous tissue.

1) Sensing internal and external changes with sensory receptors
2) Processing, interpreting, and remembering those changes
3) Responding to those changes with effectors (muscles and glands)

143

Define: functional unit of nervous system; has the capacity to produce action potentials; receive and conduct nerve impulses

Neuron

144

Define: nervous system cells that have supportive roles; do not receive or conduct nerve impulses

Neuroglia

145

Define: includes skin, hair, and nails

Integumentary system

146

Define: covers body, protects underlying tissues, and contains accessory structures that function in protection from microbes and sun, thermoregulation, and tactile sensations

Skin

147

Define: exocrine glands found throughout most of the body that secrete sweat into hair follicles or onto the skin's surface to lower body temperature

Eccrine suderiferous (sweat) glands

148

Define: exocrine glands connected to hair follicles that secrete an oily substance to help prevent hair and skin from drying out

Sebaceous (oil) glands

149

Define: smooth muscle near hair that is stimulated by autonomic nervous system to contract under conditions of stress (such as cold or fright)

Arrector pili muscle

150

Define: encapsulated nerve ending that senses light touch

Meissner's corpuscle

151

Define: encapsulated nerve ending that detects deep pressure

Pacinian corpuscle

152

Name the 3 functions of the skeletal system.

1) Support
2) Protection
3) Movement

153

Define: structural framework for body; supports soft tissues and provides attachment points for tendons of most skeletal muscles

Support

154

Define: protects many internal organs from injury

Protection

155

Define: bones and muscles work together to produce movement; muscles are attached to bones, so when they contract, they pull bones

Movement

156

Name the 3 functions of bone tissue.

1) Mineral homeostasis
2) Blood cell production (hemopoieis or hematopoieis)
3) Triglyceride storage

157

Define: several minerals, mainly calcium and phosphorus, are stored in bone tissue and released on demand into blood to maintain critical mineral balances and to distribute minerals to other parts of body

Mineral homeostasis

158

Describe blood cell production.

- Function of red bone marrow (in spongy bone)
- Occurs in skull, ribs, sternum, vertebrae, pelvis, and ends of arm and thigh bones
- Produces red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets

159

Describe triglyceride storage.

- Function of yellow bone marrow
- Consists mainly of adipocytes, which store triglycerides
- Serves as important energy reserve (triglycerides)

160

Define: decrease in angle

Flexion

161

Define: increase in angle, usually restoring to anatomical position

Extension

162

Define: movement of a bone away from the midline

Abduction

163

Define: movement of a bone towards the midline

Adduction

164

Define: movement at distal end of body part in a circle (continuous sequence of flexion, abduction, extension, and adduction)

Circumduction

165

Define: bone revolves arounds its own longitudinal axis

Rotation

166

Define: movement of forearm to turn palm anteriorly or superiorly

Supination

167

Define: movement of forearm to turn palm posteriorly or inferiorly

Pronation

168

Define: basic functional units of a myofibril in muscle, separated by z discs

Sarcomeres

169

Name the 3 types of proteins that myofibrils are composed of.

1) Contractile proteins
2) Regulatory proteins
3) Structural proteins

170

Name the 2 contractile proteins.

1) Actin (found in thin filaments)
2) Myosin (found in thick filaments)

171

Name the 2 regulatory proteins.

1) Troponin
2) Tropomyosin
* Both in thin filaments

172

Name the 3 structural proteins.

1) Titin
2) M line
3) Dystropin
4) Nebulin

173

What is muscle action stimulated by?

Acetylcholine released from motor neuron at neuromuscular junction that binds receptors on muscle cell membrane and leads to depolarization of membrane to threshold potential via opening of Na+ channels

174

What is resting membrane potential?

-90 mV

175

What is threshold potential?

-55 mV

176

Define: involves opening of Na+ ion channels and produces action potential if threshold is reached, which causes opening of more Na+ channels and leads to contraction due to opening of voltage-gated Ca++ channels

Depolarization (potential becomes more positive, moves towards threshold potential)

177

Define: involves closing of Na+ channels and opening of K+ channels and leads to relaxation due to closing of Ca++ channels

Repolarization (becomes more negative, restores resting potential)

178

Define: heads of myosin bind and form crossbridges with actin and pull the thin filaments toward the M line (midline); requires energy from ATP hydrolysis

Sliding filament mechanism of skeletal muscle contraction

179

In relaxed muscle (no Ca present), ____________, held in place by ____________, covers myosin binding sites on actin and prevents the formation of crossbridges

Tropomyosin, troponin

180

When sufficient Ca is present, it binds to ____________, which changes shape and moves ___________, thereby exposing binding sites to allow crossbridge formation

Troponin, tropomyosin

181

What is resting membrane potential in a neuron?

-70 mV

182

What is resting membrane potential in a muscle cell?

-90 mV

183

Define: small local changes from resting membrane potential

Graded potentials

184

Define: membrane becomes more positive; can build to threshold potential, so excitatory

Depolarization

185

Define: membrane becomes more negative; makes it less likely to reach threshold, so inhibitory

Hyperpolarization

186

What is threshold potential?

-55 mV; depolarizing potential required to generate an action potential

187

Name the 2 divisions of the nervous system.

1) Central Nervous System (CNS)
2) Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

188

Define: consists of brain and spinal cord

Central Nervous System

189

Define: consists of the cranial nerves and spinal nerves, which contain both sensory and motor fibers

Peripheral Nervous System

190

Name the 3 divisions of the PNS.

1) Somatic (voluntary) nervous system (SNS)
2) Autonomic (involunary) nervous systems (ANS)
3) Enteric nervous system (ENS)

191

Define: sensory neurons from skin and special sensory receptors to the CNS motor neurons to skeletal muscle

Somatic nervous system

192

Define: sensory neurons from visceral organs to CNS; motor neurons to cardiac muscle, smooth muscle, and glands; sympathetic division: "fight or flight" stress and emergency responses; parasympathetic division: "rest and digest" maintenance of homeostasis (usually dominates)

Autonomic nervous system

193

Define: involuntary sensory and motor neurons that control gastrointestinal tract

Enteric nervous system

194

Define: functional unit of nervous system

Neuron

195

Describe a neuron.

- Conducts (sends and receives) nerve impulses to communicate with and control actions of other cells
- Has 2 types of processes: dendrite(s) and one axon

196

Define: one to many short, branched processes that receive input and conduct graded potentials toward cell body

Dendrites

197

Define: one thin, typically long process that conducts nerve impulses away from cell body (sends output) and releases neurotransmitter from synaptic end bulbs at ends of axon terminals; only one present, but branches to make many contacts; most are myelinated

Axon

198

Define: nervous system cells that have supportive roles; do not conduct nerve impulses

Neuroglia

199

Name the 4 neuroglia found in the CNS.

1) Astrocytes
2) Microglia
3) Oligodendrocytes
4) Ependymal cells

200

Define: maintain chemical environment in CNS and help form the blood-brain barrier

Astrocytes

201

Define: phagocytic role

Microglia

202

Define: form myelin sheath around CNS axons

Oligodendrocytes

203

Define: line the cerebral cavities and produce cerebrospinal (CSF) fluid

Ependymal cells

204

Name the 2 neuroglia found in the PNS.

1) Schwann cells
2) Satellite cells

205

Define: form a myelin sheath around PNS axons

Schwann cells

206

Define: role not clear, but believed to maintain chemical environment in PNS

Satellite cells

207

Most axons of PNS neurons are covered by what?

Myelin sheaths produced by Schwann cells

208

Define: gaps between myelin sheaths where many voltage-gated channels are located

Nodes of Ranvier

209

Define: myelin acts as electrical insulator and speeds conduction of nerve impulses

Myelinated fibers

210

Define: slow because small diameter and no myelin insulation

Unmyelinated fibers

211

Define: rapid nerve conduction that occurs in myelinated fibers where signal jumps node to node of Ranvier

Saltatory conduction

212

Define: slow nerve conduction that occurs in unmyelinated fibers where entire length of axon must be depolarized step by step

Continuous conduction

213

Define: released from axon terminals, diffuse across synaptic cleft, and bind to receptors on target cell; may be excitatory or inhibitory

Neurotransmitters

214

Define: excitatory on neuromuscular junction but inhibitory at others

Acetylcholine

215

Define: major excitatory neurotransmitter in CNS and PNS

Glutamate

216

Define: major inhibitory neurotransmitter in forebrain

GABA

217

Define: major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain stem, spinal cord, and PNS

Glycine

218

Define: regulates mood, dreaming, and awakening from sleep

Norepinephrine

219

Define: regulates skeletal muscle tone

Dopamine

220

Define: regulates mood, temperature, and induction of sleep

Serotonin

221

Define: enhances perception of pain

Substance P

222

Define: relieve pain by blocking the release of substance P

Enkephalins (opioids)

223

Define: pathways for travel of sensory and motor information

Spinal cord nerve tracts

224

Name the 2 spinal cord nerve tracts.

1) Ascending nerve tracts
2) Descending nerve tracts

225

Define: carry sensory information from spinal cord to brain

Ascending nerve tracts

226

Define: carry motor information from brain to spinal cord

Descending nerve tracts

227

Define: extends from brain stem to cerebrum and surrounds third ventricle

Diencephalon

228

Define: relays almost all sensory input to the cerebral cortex

Thalamus

229

Define: controls and integrates activities of the autonomic nervous system and the pituitary gland

Hypothalamus

230

Define: contains pineal gland, which secretes melatonin to promote sleepiness

Epithalamus

231

Subthalamus containing subthalamic nuclei that work with basal ganglia to help control body movements

Know that!

232

Define: portion of brain between spinal cord and diencephalon

Brain stem

233

Name the 3 parts that make up the brain stem.

1) Medulla oblongata
2) Pons
3) Midbrain

234

Describe the medulla oblongata.

- Lower part of the brain stem
- Relays motor and sensory impulses between other parts of the brain and spinal cord
- Has a cardiovascular center that regulates the force and rate of heartbeat and diameter of blood vessels
- Has a respiratory center that adjusts the rhythm of breathing

235

Describe pons.

- Middle part of the brain stem
- Relays impulses from one side of the cerebellum to other and between medulla and midbrain
- Has pneumotaxic and apneustic area to help control breathing

236

Describe midbrain.

- Upper part of the brain stem
- Relays motor impulses from cerebral cortex to pons and secretory impulses from spinal cord to thalamus
- Includes the red nuclei, which function with the cerebellum to coordinate muscular movements
- Includes substantia nigra that releases dopamine for regulating muscle tone

237

Define: posterior to medulla and pons and inferior to posterior cerebrum

Cerebellum

238

List the functions of the cerebellum.

- Coordinate complex, skilled movements
- Regulate posture and balance
- May have role in cognition and language processing

239

Define: consists of cerebral cortex (outer rim of gray matter), white matter (interior), and gray matter nuclei deep within white matter

Cerebrum

240

The cerebrum is divided into...?

Left and right hemispheres

241

What is the function of each hemisphere?

Receives sensory input from and controls muscles on opposite sides of body

242

Define: functional asymmetry between the two hemispheres

Hemispheric lateralization

243

What is the left hemisphere important for?

Reasoning, numeric, and scientific skills, language

244

What is the right hemisphere important for?

More specialized for art and music, spacial and pattern perception, emotional content of language, and face recognition

245

Name the 5 lobes of the brain.

1) Frontal
2) Parietal
3) Occipital
4) Temporal
5) Insula

246

Define: receive nerve impulses for specific stimuli; determines location and basic characteristics of stimuli

Primary sensory areas

247

Define: controls voluntary contractions of specific muscles or muscle groups

Primary motor area

248

Define: brain region where planning and production of speech occurs

Broca's speech area

249

Define: inability to use or comprehend words; caused by injury to language areas (Broca's speech area)

Aphasia

250

Define: usually receive input from primary sensory areas and other brain regions, including thalamus; integrate/interpret sensory info by comparing with past sensory (memory)

Sensory association (secondary sensory) areas

251

Define: motor association area that controls learned skilled movements and stores memory for such movements

Premotor area

252

Define: 3 nuclei deep within each cerebral hemisphere that help regulate initiation and termination of movements

Basal ganglia

253

Define: has primary role in emotions, olfaction, and memory

Limbic system

254

Define: involved in stimulating and maintaining arousal and consciousness

Reticular activating system (RAS)

255

Define: acquiring new knowledge

Learning

256

Define: process of retaining and retrieving information

Memory

257

Define: collection of action potentials and graded potentials generated by neurons in brain

Brain waves

258

Define: record of brain waves (electrical signals) used for studying normal brain activity and diagnosing disorders such as tumor, trauma, and epilepsy

Electroencephalogram (EEG)

259

Define: state of altered or partial consciousness from which a person can be aroused

Sleep

260

Name the 2 components of sleep.

1) Non-rapid eye movement (NREM)
2) Rapid eye movement (REM)

261

Do both alternate throughout sleep?

Yes

262

When do most dreams occur?

During REM sleep

263

What does sleep deprivation impair?

Attention, learning, and performance

264

Name the 4 receptors for somatic sensations.

1) Proprioceptors
2) Nocioceptors
3) Thermoreceptors
4) Tactile receptors

265

Define: sense joint position and movement and muscle length and tension

Proprioceptors

266

Define: sense pain; found in all tissues of the body except the brain

Nocioceptors

267

Define: sense warmth or cold

Thermoreceptors

268

Define: sense touch, pressure, vibration, tickle, and itch

Tactile receptors

269

What do special senses involve?

Olfaction, gestation, vision, hearing, and equilibrium; involve much more complex, specialized receptors that somatic sensations

270

Define: sense of taste; chemical sense in which tastants are dissolves in saliva and detected by gustatory hairs in taste buds

Gustation

271

Define: detect 5 gustatory stimuli

Taste buds

272

Name the 5 gustatory stimuli.

1) Bitter
2) Sour
3) Sweet
4) Salty
5) Unami-meaty/savory

273

Where does the taste on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue come from?

Sensory axons of the facial nerve

274

Where does the taste on the posterior 1/3 of the tongue come from?

Sensory axons of the glossopharyngeal nerve

275

Define: sense of smell; chemical sense in which odorants are dissolved and detected by olfactory hairs of olfactory receptors

Olfaction

276

Define: formed by bundles of olfactory receptor (1st order neurons) axons that terminate in olfactory bulb

Olfactory nerve (cranial nerve I)

277

Define: formed by axons of olfactory bulb neurons (2nd order neurons) that project to lateral olfactory area in temporal lobe

Olfactory tract

278

Define: transparent and curved coat that covers iris that functions in refraction of light; helps focus light onto retina

Cornea

279

Define: refracts light; help focus light on macula lutea of retina to provide clear images

Lens

280

Define: colored portion of eye that faces anteriorly

Iris

281

Define: hole in center that functions to regulate amount of light entering eye

Pupil

282

What is changing size of pupil regulated by?

Autonomic reflexes

283

Define: circular muscles contract in bright light to constrict pupil

Parasympathetic reflex

284

Define: radial muscles contract in dim light to dilate pupil

Sympathetic reflex

285

Define: serves as beginning of visual pathway

Retina

286

Define: site where optic nerve exits back of eyeball; blind spot because contains no photoreceptors (rods and cones)

Optic disc

287

What are the 2 layers of the retina?

1) Pigmented
2) Neural

288

Define: nonvisual portion that has melanin; absorbs stray light and help keep image sharp and clear

Pigmented epithelium

289

Define: multilayered outgrowth of brain that processes visual input; then sends nerve impulses down axons that form optic nerves

Neural layer

290

Where are photoreceptors located?

Retina

291

What are photoreceptors named for?

The shape of their outer segment

292

Define: photoreceptors active in dim light that detect shades of gray; contains photopigment called rhodopsin

Rods

293

Define: photoreceptors active in bright light with photopigments to detect color; each one contains one of 3 different photopigments (opsins) for color; produce sharper vision than rods

Cones

294

Define: normal eye that can sufficiently refract light rays from an object 20 ft away so that a clear image is focused on the retina

Emmetropic eye

295

Define: nearsightedness

Myopia

296

Why does nearsightedness occur?

Occurs because eyeball is too long relative to focusing power of cornea and lens

297

Define: farsightedness

Hypermetropia (hyperopia)

298

Why does farsightedness occur?

Occurs because eyeball is too short relative to focusing power of cornea and lens

299

Define: parts of image are out of focus, producing blurred or distorted vision

Astigmatism

300

Why does astigmatism occur?

Occurs due to irregular curvature of cornea

301

Name the 3 major processes involved in image formation.

1) Refraction (bending of light) by cornea and lens to focus light rays onto retina
2) Accommodation of lens: increasing curvature of lens so light is still focused as objects move closer to eye
3) Constriction of pupil to prevent light rays from entering through periphery of lens which minimizes blurriness

302

Define: collects sound waves

Auricle

303

Define: directs sound waves to tympanic membrane

External auditory canal (meatus)

304

Define: vibrated by sound waves, which vibrates ear ossicles in turn

Tympanic membrane (eardrum)

305

Define: transmit and amplify vibrations to oval window; include: malleus, incus, and stapes

Auditory (ear) ossicles

306

Define: contains series of fluids, channels, and membranes that transmit vibrations to organ of Corti for hearing

Cochlea

307

Define: contains hair receptors cells that produce receptor potentials, which elicit nerve impulses in cochlear branch of vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)

Organ of Corti

308

Where do nerve impulses eventually reach?

Primary and secondary auditory areas involved in awareness and interpretation of sound

309

Define: contains receptor organs for sense of equilibrium

Vestibular apparatus

310

What does the vestibular apparatus include?

- Semicircular ducts
- Utricle
- Saccule

311

What does movement of stereocilia on hair cells of saccule and utricle lead to?

Generation of nerve impulses in vestibular brach of vestibulocochlear nerve (cranial nerve VIII)

312

Define: maintenance of body position (mainly the head) relative to the force of gravity

Static equilibrium

313

Define: maintenance of body position (mainly the head) during sudden movements such as rotation, acceleration, or deceleration

Dynamic equilibrium

314

Define: contain hair (receptor) cells for dynamic equilibrium

Semicircular ducts

315

Define: contain hair cells for dynamic and static equilibrium

Utricle and saccule